Title of the talk​

Antimicrobial Resistance: Indian Scenario

Dr.Anil Kumar is a clinical microbiologist with 15 years’ of experience. He did his MBBS & MD form Saurashtra University, Rajkot, Gujarat. He is a Fellow of the European Confederation of Medical Mycology (FECMM). He has published extensively on clinical microbiology and antimicrobial resistance in national and international journals. He has 110 publications to his credit and is a reviewer for 24 international journals. His publications have been cited 3900 times. He has a H-index score of 18. His research interest includes characterizing antimicrobial resistance in bacteria and fungi. He was one of the coauthors of the NDM-1 article in Lancet infectious disease which brought the problem of AMR in public domain (1). Dr. Anil was the first to report Colistin resistance due to insertional inactivation of the mgrB in K. pneumoniae of clinical origin from India (2). He has also investigated the Fecal carriage rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli among antibiotic naive healthy human volunteers and  hospitalized patients (3). He has also published extensively in MDR Candida auris isolates from India. He was the first to publish about the problem of misidentification of C.auris as C.haemulonii by automated identification system (4). His publication also revealed that there is a single clone of C.auris circulating in India (5). Dr. Anil publication on C.haemulonii infections is one of the very few in published literatures (6). His publication on the antifungal susceptibility patterns of 350 C. auris Isolates (2009-2017) in India is used as a template to guide clinicians on appropriate therapeutic options for these fungi for which treatment protocols are yet to be defined (7). He was the first to determine the antifungal activity of Octenidine Dihydrochloride and Ultraviolet-C light against multidrug-resistant C. auris (8).  His study on C. glabrata found the absence of azole or echinocandin resistance in isolates from India (9). His recent study on Candida parapsilosis reported the emergence of clonal fluconazole-resistant clinical isolates in India (10). He was the first to report the high incidence of C. orthopsilosis among the C.parapsilosis complex isolates from India (11). He also found high incidence of fluconazole resistance among, C. parapsilosis sensu stricto isolates.
References:
  1. Kumarasamy KK, Toleman MA, Walsh TR et al.. Emergence of a new antibiotic resistance mechanism in India, Pakistan, and the UK: a molecular, biological, and epidemiological study. Lancet Infect Dis. 2010 Sep;10(9):597-602. doi: 10.1016/S1473-3099(10)70143-2.
  2. Anil Kumar, Lalitha Biswas, Neha Omgy et al.. Colistin resistance due to insertional inactivation of the mgrB in K.pneumoniae of clinical origin: First report from India. Revista Española de Quimioterapia http://seq.es/avance-online
  3. Mathai D, Kumar VA, Paul B et al.. Fecal carriage rates of extended-spectrum β-lactamase-producing Escherichia coli among antibiotic naive healthy human volunteers. Microb Drug Resist. 2015 Feb;21(1):59-64. doi: 10.1089/mdr.2014.0031. Epub 2014 Aug 15. PMID: 25127253.
  4. Shallu Kathuria, Pradeep K. Singh, Cheshta Sharma et al..Multidrug resistant Candida auris misidentified as C. haemulonii: Characterization by Matrix Assisted Laser Desorption Ionization-Time of Flight Mass Spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS), DNA sequencing and its antifungal susceptibility profile variability by VITEK-2, CLSI-Broth Microdilution and E-test method. J. Clin. Microbiol. J Clin Microbiol. 2015;53(6):1823-30.
  5. Chowdhary A, Anil Kumar V, Sharma C et al.. Multidrug-resistant endemic clonal strain of Candida auris in India. Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis. 2014 Jun;33(6):919-26. doi: 10.1007/s10096-013-2027-1. Epub 2013.
  6. Anil Kumar, Anupam Prakash, Ashutosh Singh et al..Candida haemulonii species complex: an emerging species in India and its genetic diversity by multilocus sequence typing and amplified fragment length polymorphism” . Emerging Microbes and Infections (2016) 5, e49; doi:10.1038/emi.2016.49
  7. Chowdhary, Anuradha; Prakash, Anupam; Sharma, Cheshta et al.. A Multi-centre Study of Antifungal Susceptibility Patterns of 350 Candida auris Isolates (2009-2017) in India:  Role of the ERG11 and FKS1 Gene in Azole and Echinocandin Resistance. . J Antimicrob Chemother. 2018  1;73(4):891-899. dkx480, https://doi.org/10.1093/jac/dkx480
  8. Pretty Ponnachan, Vivek Vinod, Unnimaya Pullanhi et al.. Antifungal Activity of Octenidine Dihydrochloride and Ultraviolet-C light against Multidrug-Resistant Candida auris. Journal of Hospital Infection https://doi.org/10.1016/j.jhin.2018.09.008
  9. Ashutosh Singh, Kelley Healey, Priyanka Yadav et al.. Absence of azole or echinocandin resistance in Candida glabrata isolates in India despite background prevalence of strains with defects in DNA mismatch repair pathway. Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2018 Apr 2. pii: AAC.00195-18. doi: 10.1128/AAC.00195-18.
  10. Singh A, Singh PK, de Groot T, Kumar A et al..Emergence of clonal fluconazole-resistant Candida parapsilosis clinical isolates in a multicentre laboratory-based surveillance study in India. J Antimicrob Chemother. 2019 Feb 11. doi: 10.1093/jac/dkz029. [Epub ahead of print]
  11. Susan Maria, Gaurav Barnwal, Anil Kumar et al..Species Distribution and Antifungal Susceptibility among Clinical Isolates of Candida parapsilosis Complex: First report from India. Revista Iberoamericana de MicologíaDOI: 10.1016/j.riam.2018.01.004