Unit I: Atomic Structure
Bohr model of hydrogen atom, Bohr’s equation for the energy of electron in hydrogen atom, the hydrogen spectrum, limitations of Bohr theory, photoelectric effect, idea of de Broglie matter waves, Heisenberg’s uncertainity principle and its significance, Schrodinger wave equation (derivation not expected), wave functions, significance of ψ (psi) and ψ2 , atomic orbitals, Nodal planes in atomic orbitals, quantum numbers (n, l, m), Zeeman effect, Stern-Gerlac experiment, spin quantum number (s), shapes of s, p and d orbitals. Aufbau and Pauli’s exclusion principles, Hund’s rule, energy level diagram of a multielectron atom, concept of effective nuclear charge, Slater’s rules and applications, Electronic configuration of atoms.
Unit II: Periodic Properties
Classification of elements into s, p, d, and f-blocks, cause of periodicity. Atomic radius: Covalent, ionic,and Vanderwaal’s radii. Variation in a group and in a period.Variation of ionic radii in isoelectronic ions. Ionization enthalpy: Successive ionization enthalpy, factors affecting ionization enthalpy, variation in group and in a period. Electron gain enthalpy: Successive electron gain enthalpy variation in period and in a group. Electronegativity: Variation of electronegativity in a group and in a period. Factors determining electro negativity (charge on the atom and hybridization). Pauling, Mulliken and Allred-Rochow scale of electronegativity. Applications of electronegativity.
Unit III: Chemical Bonding - I
Ionic bond: Factors that favour the formation of ionic bonds, Lattice energy, Born-Lande’s equation (no derivation), Born-Haber cycle, setting up of Born-Haber cycle for 1:1 ionic solids. Numerical calculations of LE and EA based on Born-Haber cycle for 1:1 ionic solids, uses of Born-Haber cycle. Role of lattice energy and hydration energy and their importance in the context of stability and solubility of ionic solids. Covalent bond: Factors favouring the formation of covalent bond (ionization energy, electron affinity, electronegativity, nuclear charge, inter nuclear distance and number of valence electrons). Valence bond approach – explanation with examples to illustrate valence bond approach.Sigma and Pi bonds.Fajan’s rules of polarization and their explanation. Bond length, bond order, bond energy and their significance, polarity of covalent bonds, polar and 2 non-polar molecules, Dipole moment and polarity of molecules to be explained by taking HCl, CO2, CCl4 and H2O as examples.
Unit IV: Chemical Bonding – II
Hybridization-directional property and geometry of sp, sp2, sp3, sp3d and sp3d2 hybrid orbitals with examples respectively. VSEPR theory. Coordinate bond: with examples. Molecular Orbital Theory: An elementary account of MOT, linear combination of atomic orbitals (no mathematical approach). Bonding and antibonding molecular orbitals, conditions for the combination, energy levels of molecular orbitals, Molecular orbital structures and bond orders of simple molecules and ions, prediction of magnetic properties.
Unit V: Analytical Chemistry
Titrimetric analysis: fundamental concepts - mole, molarity, molality, ppm and ppb primary standard-secondary standard, quantitative dilution – problems. Acid base titrations- titration curves –pH indicators. Redox titrations – titration curve –titrations involving MnO4- and Cr2O72- - redox indicators. Complexometric titrations – EDTA titrations - titration curves – indicators. Statistical treatment of results of quantitative analysis: Classification of errors, accuracy, precision, minimization of errors (calibration of apparatus, running of blank determination, running parallel determination to be mentioned), significant figures and computation, mean and standard deviation (explanation with an example), distribution of random errors (explanation with the help of curve), reliability of results (F-test and t-test).