Semiconductor Characteristics and Applications: Review : Intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, electrons and holes in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, conduction by electrons and holes, conductivity of a semiconductor, Energy bands in semiconductors. Carrier concentrations in intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductors, Fermi level, donor and acceptor levels in extrinsic semiconductors.
P-N junction diode – depletion layer, conduction in PN junction diode, characteristics, diode resistance.
Half wave and full wave rectifiers, power output and efficiency, Ripple factors. Breakdown in diodes – Zener breakdown, Zener diode characteristics and application in voltage regulation.
LEDs, photo diodes, LDRs and Solar cells
Transistors and Applications
Bipolar junction transistor (PNP and NPN) transistors, different configurations and characteristics, current components in CE configuration, large signal and small signal dc current gains, transistor biasing – self bias circuit, Load line and operating point.
Transistor as an amplifier : Transistor as a two port device, h-parameters and analysis of CE amplifier using h parameter equivalent circuit, simplified h-parameter circuit, stabilization of voltage gain in CE amplifiers, Two stage amplifiers, RC coupling, frequency response of CE amplifier. Comparison of transistor configurations.
Emitter follower circuit and its use.Transistor as Power amplifier.
FET construction and its characteristics – MOSFET characteristics.
Concept of feedback in amplifiers and advantages of negative feedback.
Basic Principles of sinusoidal oscillators, Statement and explanation of Barkhausen criterion for sustained oscillations, RC phase –shift Oscillator, explanation of : tank circuit and development of oscillations in an LC circuit, Hartley Oscillator, Colpitt’s Oscillator, Wien Bridge Oscillator, Piezoelectric effect, Piezoelectric Oscillator.
Binary to decimal and decimal to binary conversion, Binary addition and subtraction, Octal number system, Hexadecimal system and conversions.
Construction and working of AND and OR logic gates using diodes. Construction of NOT gate using transistor. Symbols and truth table for AND, OR, NOT, NAND NOR and Ex-OR logic gates. Boolean algebra, Boolean laws, D’morgan’s theorem. NAND and NOR as universal gates.
Introduction to OP-AMP.Differential amplifiers, principle of OP-AMP, OP-AMP parameters, Applications – Addition, Subtraction, differentiation and integration.
Basic theory of amplitude modulation, Power in modulated carrier, single side band transmission, Basic idea of frequency and phase modulation. Modulated class C amplifier, demodulation, PN diode as demodulator linear and square law detection.
Propagation of radio waves, different layers of ionosphere and their functions,
Radio communication: Role of ionosphere in radio communication. Block diagram of Radio transmission. The block diagram and diagram of super heterodyne AM Receiver.