Cell resting potential and action potentials - Origin of bio potentials - characteristics – Frequency and amplitude ranges - ECG – Einthoven’s triangle – 3 lead ECG system - EEG – 10- 20 electrode system - Origin and characteristics of EMG – EOG - ERG electrodes and transducers. Electrode-electrolyte interface – Electrode – skin interface - Half cell potential – Impedance - Polarization effects of electrode – Nonpolarizable electrodes. Types of electrodes - Surface; needle and micro electrodes – ECG – EMG - EEG Electrodes.
Diagnostic and Therapeutic Equipments: Blood pressure monitors – Electrocardioscope - Pulse Oximeter - pH meter - Auto analyzer – Pacemakers – Defibrillator - Heart lung machine - Nerve and muscle stimulators - Dialysis machines - Surgical diathermy equipments – Nebulizer; inhalator - Aspirator – Humidifier - Ventilator and spirometry.
Medical imaging techniques: Basics of diagnostic radiology – Production - Nature and properties of X rays - X-ray machine - Block diagram - Digital radiography – CT - Basic Principle - Block diagram – Radioisotopes in medical diagnosis – Physics of radioactivity – Gamma Camera. Block diagram – SPECT Scanner – PET Scanner - Principles of NMR Imaging systems - Block diagram of NMR Imaging System – Ultrasonic Imaging Systems – Physics of Ultrasound waves – Doppler effect – Medical Ultrasound Electrical safety: Physiological effects of electricity. Micro & macro shock hazards – Electrical Safety codes and standards – Protection of patients.