Unit I: Introduction to Educational Research
- Research – meaning, definition and its importance.
- Educational research – meaning, definition, significance of educational research, need for scientific approach to research, kinds of educational research.
- Steps of educational research – identification of a research problem, review of literature, formulation of objectives and hypothesis, finalization of research design, collection of data, analysis of data and interpretation and report of results.
- Preparation of research proposal..
Unit II: Research Ethics
- Research Ethics – meaning and ethical treatment of participants.
- Ethical issues in educational research.
Unit III: Research Designs
- Research Design – meaning and criterias of a good research design.
- Quantitative research – historical research, case study and ethnography.
- Qualitative research – survey and experimental research.
- Sampling – meaning, steps in sampling design, types of sampling design.
- Methods of data collection – types of data – primary data collection methods – observation, experimentation, simulation and interview.
- Tools for collecting data – Questionnaire, observation schedules, rating scales.
Unit IV: Analysis and Presentation of Data
- Processing of data – Editing, coding, classification, tabulation,
- Graphical representation of data - frequency tables, mean, bar charts, pie charts, histograms, cross tabulation, other table based analysis, Descriptive and inferential statistics.
- Measures of central tendency – mean, median, mode., Measures of variability – range, quartile deviation, standard deviation., Normal Curve., correlation.,chi-square tests., Analysis of variance (ANOVA).
- A brief introduction to hypothesis testing.
Unit V: Report Writing and Presentation
- Report - Introduction, meaning of report, types of reports.
- Writing a report - Planning report writing, format of a research report, report writing stages.