Course Title: 
Electrochemical Energy Systems and Processes
Course Code: 
Year Taught: 
Undergraduate (UG)
School of Engineering

Electrochemical Energy Systems and Processes is an elective course offered in the B. Tech. programs at the School of Engineering, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham.

Course Outcomes

  • CO1: Understand the fundamental concepts of electrochemistry through electrode potential and reaction kinetics
  • CO2: Learn the application of the electrochemical  principles for the functioning and fabrication of industrial batteries and fuel cells
  • CO3: Acquire knowledge in solving numerical problems on applied electrochemistry 
  • CO4: Analysis and practical problem solving in fabrication of batteries and fuel cells
  • CO5: Application of concepts and principle in industrial electrochemical processes
  • CO6: Evaluation of comprehensive knowledge through problem solving

Unit 1

Background Theory: Origin of potential - electrical double layer - reversible electrode potential - standard hydrogen electrode - emf series - measurement of potential - reference electrodes (calomel and silver/silver chloride) indicator and ion selective electrodes - Nernst equation - irreversible processes - kinetic treatment - Butler- Volmer equation - Overpotential, activation, concentration and IR overpotential - its practical significance - Tafel equation and Tafel plots - exchange current density and transfer coefficients.

Unit 2

Batteries: Primary batteries: The chemistry, fabrication and performance aspects, packing classification and rating of the following batteries: (The materials taken their function and significance, reactions with equations, their performance in terms of discharge, capacity, and energy density to be dealt with). Zinc-carbon (Leclanche type), zinc alkaline (Duracell), zinc/air, zinc-silver oxide batteries; lithium primary cells - liquid cathode, solid cathode and polymer electrolyte types and lithium-ferrous sulphide cells (comparative account).

Secondary batteries: ARM (alkaline rechargeable manganese) cells, Lead acid and VRLA (valve regulated (sealed) lead acid), nickel-cadmium, nickel-zinc, nickel- metal hydride batteries, lithium ion batteries, ultra thin lithium polymer cells (comparative account). Advanced Batteries for electric vehicles, requirements of the battery - sodium- beta and redox batteries.

Unit 3 

Reserve batteries and Fuel cells: Reserve batteries - water activated, electrolyte activated and thermally activated batteries - remote activation - pyrotechnic materials. Fuel Cells: Principle, chemistry and functioning - carbon, hydrogen- oxygen, proton exchange membrane (PEM), direct methanol(DMFC), molten carbonate electrolyte (MCFC) fuel cells and outline of biochemical fuel cells.

Electrochemical Processes: Principle, process description, operating conditions, process sequence and applications of Electroforming – production of waveguide and plated through hole (PTH) printed circuit boards by electrodeposition; Electroless plating of nickel, copper and gold; Electropolishing of metals; Anodizing of aluminium; Electrochemical machining of metals and alloys.


  • Derek Pletcher and Frank C. Walsh, “Industrial Electrochemistry”, Blackie Academic and Professional, (1993).
  • Dell, Ronald M Rand, David A J, “Understanding Batteries”, Royal Society of Chemistry, (2001).


  • Christopher M A, Brett, “Electrochemistry – Principles, Methods and Applications”, Oxford University, (2004).
  • Watanabe T, “Nano-plating: microstructure control theory of plated film and data base of plated film microstructure”, Elsevier, Oxford, UK (2004).
  • Kanani N, “Electroplating and electroless plating of copper and its alloy”, ASM International, Metals Park, OH and Metal Finishing Publications, Stevenage, UK (2003).
  • Lindon David, “Handbook of Batteries”, McGraw Hill, (2002).
  • Curtis, “Electroforming”, London, (2004).
  • Rumyantsev E and Davydov A, “Electrochemical machining of metals”, Mir, Moscow, (1989).

Evaluation Pattern

Assessment Internal External
Periodical 1 (P1) 15 -
Periodical 2 (P2) 15 -
*Continuous Assessment (CA) 20 -
End Semester - 50
*CA – Can be Quizzes, Assignment, Projects, and Reports.