Background Theory: Origin of potential - electrical double layer - reversible electrode potential - standard hydrogen electrode - emf series - measurement of potential - reference electrodes (calomel and silver/silver chloride) indicator and ion selective electrodes - Nernst equation - irreversible processes - kinetic treatment - Butler- Volmer equation - Overpotential, activation, concentration and IR overpotential - its practical significance - Tafel equation and Tafel plots - exchange current density and transfer coefficients.
Batteries: Primary batteries: The chemistry, fabrication and performance aspects, packing classification and rating of the following batteries: (The materials taken their function and significance, reactions with equations, their performance in terms of discharge, capacity, and energy density to be dealt with). Zinc-carbon (Leclanche type), zinc alkaline (Duracell), zinc/air, zinc-silver oxide batteries; lithium primary cells - liquid cathode, solid cathode and polymer electrolyte types and lithium-ferrous sulphide cells (comparative account).
Secondary batteries: ARM (alkaline rechargeable manganese) cells, Lead acid and VRLA (valve regulated (sealed) lead acid), nickel-cadmium, nickel-zinc, nickel- metal hydride batteries, lithium ion batteries, ultra thin lithium polymer cells (comparative account). Advanced Batteries for electric vehicles, requirements of the battery - sodium- beta and redox batteries.
Reserve batteries and Fuel cells: Reserve batteries - water activated, electrolyte activated and thermally activated batteries - remote activation - pyrotechnic materials. Fuel Cells: Principle, chemistry and functioning - carbon, hydrogen- oxygen, proton exchange membrane (PEM), direct methanol(DMFC), molten carbonate electrolyte (MCFC) fuel cells and outline of biochemical fuel cells.
Electrochemical Processes: Principle, process description, operating conditions, process sequence and applications of Electroforming – production of waveguide and plated through hole (PTH) printed circuit boards by electrodeposition; Electroless plating of nickel, copper and gold; Electropolishing of metals; Anodizing of aluminium; Electrochemical machining of metals and alloys.