Error Analysis and Sampling: Accuracy - Precision - Classification of Errors -Minimization of errors - Standard deviation - Coefficient of variance - F-test - t-test - Significant figures. Sampling - Basis of sampling, Sampling and physical state - Safety measures of sampling.
Separation Techniques: Brief out line of column, paper and thin layer chromatography - Ion exchange methods - principle and application – HPLC.
Gas chromatography - principle and applications – gel chromatography.
Electroanalytical techniques: Potentiometry - Potentiometric titration - determination of equivalence point - acid base, complexometric, redox and precipitation titrations - merits and demerits. Voltammetry - Cyclic voltammetry - basic principle and application - Polarography - introduction - theoretical principles - migration current - residual current - half wave potential - instrumentation - analytical applications.
Spectro-chemical techniques: UV-VIS spetrophotometry - principle - Beer's Law application - photometric titration - single and double beam spectrophotometer - instrumentation of IR - sample handling - IR applications - H - NMR - Instrumentation and applications – principle - instrumentation - applications of atomic absorption spectroscopy.
Thermal and Diffraction techniques: Principles and applications of DTG - DTA DSC - X-ray - Electron Diffraction Studies - SEM, TEM.