Course Title: 
Logic and Critical Thinking in Indian Philosophy
Course Code: 
Year Taught: 
Foundation Core
Postgraduate (PG)
School of Arts and Sciences

'Logic and Critical Thinking in Indian Philosophy' is a course offered in the second semester of M.A. Philosophy offered by Amrita Darshanam - International Center for Spiritual Studies , Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham.

Unit I

The close Relationship of Logic, Epistemology and Metaphysics in Indian Tradition.

Primacy of Logical Reasoning in Establishing One’s Own System and Refuting all Rival Systems, The Method of Purvapaksa and Siddhanta, The Concepts of Anviksiki and Anumiti.

Unit II

Logic or Anumana Pramana as part of Epistemology (Praman Sastra)

Logic or Anumana Pramana rooted in Metaphysics (Prameya Sastra)

Logic or Anumana Pramana as Hetuvidya or Vadavidhi and Anviksiti.

Unit III

Definition of Anumana: Nyaya and Buddhist Perspectives, Constituents of Anumana: Nyaya, Buddhist, Jaina and Advaitic Perspectives, Process of Anumana: Nyaya, Buddhist and Jaina Perspectives, Types of Anumana: Nyaya, Buddhist, Jaina and Advaitic Perspetives.

Unit IV

Nyaya: Paksata, Paramarsa and Definition of Vyapti

Inductive Elements in Indian Logic: The Concepts of Vyaptigrahopaya, Samanya Laksana Pratyasatti, Tarka and Upadhi.

Unit V

Hetucakra Damaru of Dinnaga, Hetvabhasas.


  1. Visvanatha. Bhasaparichheda.
  2. S. S. Barlingay. A Modern Introduction to Indian Logic. Delhi: National Publishing House, 1965. English.
  3. D. C. Guha. Navya Nyaya System of Logic. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1979. English.
  4. Nandita Bandyopadhyay. The Concept of Logical Fallacies. Delhi: Sanskrit Pustak Bhandar, 1977. English.
  5. B. K. Matilal. The Navya Nyaya Doctrine of Negation. Michigan: Harvard University Press, 1968. English.
  6. S. R. Bhatt. Buddhist Epistemology. USA: Greenwood Press, 2000. English.
  7. B. K. Matilal. Logic, Language and Reality. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 2008. English.
  8. Kuppuswami Sastri. A Primer of Indian Logic.

Employability aspects

  1. The course will enhance the student's ability on critical thinking, so they can be suitable for media related profession
  2. It will equip them to clear competitive examination (in the area of mental ability, logical reasoning etc.)
  3. It will motivate them to become successful administrators