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Course Code: 
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Integrated Degree
School of Arts and Sciences

'Optics' is a course offered at the School of Arts and Sciences, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Mysuru campus.

To enable students to understand that light is a wave phenomenon and apply the understanding of wave phenomenon to light.

Unit I: 

Wave Nature of Light and Interference: Light-electromagnetic spectrum, Rotating mirror method of determination of speed of light, Huygen’s principle, explanation of reflection and refraction, Fermat’s Principle, Phase change on reflection, total internal reflection.

Young’s experiment - coherence, intensity distribution and visibility of fringes, Newton’s rings, Fresnel’s Biprism, interference in thin films, colours of thin films, interference at an air wedge, Michelson’s interferometer.

Unit II:

Diffraction: Fraunhoffer and Fresnel : Diffraction, Diffraction at a single slit, double slit, Diffraction by multiple slits, Diffraction grating, Resolving power – Rayleigh’s criterion, Resolving power of a grating and telescope. Fresnel diffraction, half period zone, zone plate, diffraction at a circular aperture and at a straight edge (qualitative treatment only).

Unit III: 

Polarisation: Polarization by reflection, Brewster’s law, Malus law, Double refraction, Production and detection of linearly, circularly and elliptically polarized light, Quarter and half wave plates, Polariods, Discussion on use of Polaroid sheets in preparing tinted sunglasses, Optical activity.

Unit IV: 

Scattering of Light: A brief discussion on Tyndall effect, Rayleigh scattering and Raman effect. Blue of the sky and ocean.A qualitative account of fluorescence and phosphorescence. Raman effect: Classical and quantum theory of Raman effect, experimental method for studying Raman spectra, Raman spectrum, study of Raman effect using Lasers, intensity of Raman lines, Polarisation of Raman lines, characteristic properties of Raman lines, applications of Raman effect.

Unit V: 

Introduction to Lasers: Spontaneous and stimulated emission, density of states, Einstein’s A and B coefficients. Ratio of stimulated to spontaneous transitions in a system in thermal equilibrium, condition for amplification, population inversion, methods of optical pumping, energy level schemes of He-Ne and Ruby Laser. Properties and uses of Lasers. Basic concepts of holography – construction of hologram – Discussion on the use of holograms in daily life - Recording and reproduction of holograms.


  1. N SubramanyamBrijlal: Waves and Oscillations, 2nd edition, VikasPublishing house Pvt. Ltd., New Delhi.
  2. A.B.BhattacharyaR.Bhattacharya, Under Graduate Physics, Volume I, New Central Book Agency(P) Ltd., Kolkata.
  3. N. SubrahmanyamBrijlal and Dr. M.N. Avadhanulu: A text book of Optics, 24th revised edition-S.Chand& company Ltd, New Delhi


  1. Halliday/Resnick/Walker: Fundamentals of Physics, 8th edition, John Wiley &Sons(Asia) Pte. Ltd.
  2. F A Jenkins and H E White: Optics, McGraw-Hill, 3rd Edition, (1957).
  3. Khanna and Bedi: Sound.
  4. S K Gupta, O P Varma: Waves and Oscillations, 3rd edition, R.Chand& Co., New Delhi.
  5. R.L. Saihgal, A Text Book of Sound, S.Chand& Company Ltd. New Delhi, Reprint 1990.
  6. P.K.Mittal& Jai DevAnand, A Text Book of Sound, Har-Anand Publications, New Delhi.
  7. N V Suryanarayana: Electrical Measurements and Measuring Instruments, 1st edition, S.Chand& Co. Ltd., New Delhi.
  8. H S Kalsi: Electronic Instrumentation, 2nd edition, Tata McGraw-Hill Publishing Co. Ltd., New Delhi. 
  9. D.R. Khanna and H.R. Gulati: Fundamentals of Optics, 15th edition- R. Cjand publishers, New Delhi.
  10. R. Murugeshan Kiruthiga Sivaprasath: Optics and Spectroscopy , 17th revised edition, S.Chand & company Ltd, New Delhi.
  1. Determination of wavelength of mercury spectral lines using Diffraction Grating by normal incidence method.
  2. Determination of the refractive index of the material of a prism by minimum deviation method.
  3. Determination of Cauchy’s constants using a prism, grating and spectrometer.
  4. Determination of the resolving power of a telescope.
  5. Determination of wave length of monochromatic light source using Bi-Prism.
  6. Resolving power of a grating.
  7. Wavelength and wavelength difference using a Michelson’s interferometer.
  8. Determination of the thickness of paper by interference at a wedge.
  9. Determination of the radius of curvature of the lens by Newton’s Rings.
  10. Determination of the refractive index of a liquid by Newton’s rings.
  11. Verification of Brewster’s Law.
  12. Refractive index of a prism by i-d curve.