'Waves, Heat and Thermodynamics' is a course offered at the School of Arts and Sciences, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Mysuru campus.

**Unit I: **

**Oscillations:** Simple Harmonic Motion (SHM), the restoring force along with its kinematical model, force law, SHM equation and idea of phase and phase difference, energy considerations in simple harmonic motion. Superposition of the SHMs, Lissajous figures, Equation for damped vibrations, forced vibrations. Analysis of complex waves. Fourier Series, Application to square wave, triangular wave.

**Waves in Elastic Media:** Review of Mechanical waves, types of waves, travelling waves, the superposition principle, wave speed, power and intensity in wave motion, expression for transverse waves in a stretched string, interference of waves, standing waves, resonance, simulation and demonstrations using ripple tank.

**Sound Waves: **Audible, ultrasonic and infrasonic waves, propagation and speed of longitudinal waves, travelling longitudinal waves, standing longitudinal waves, vibrating systems and source of sound, beats and Doppler effect, wave equation for sound pressure, sound power and its measuring unit (decibel).

**Unit II:**

**Kinetic Theory of Gases:** Introduction, Kinetic Theory of Gases, kinetic theory as particle model and usefulness of the model in explaining the regular structure of crystals (Review), an ideal gas – a macroscopic description, an ideal gas – a microscopic description, kinetic calculation of pressure, kinetic interpretation of temperature, ideal gas scale, intermolecular forces, specific heat of an ideal gas, law of equipartition of energy.

Mean free path, van der Waal’s equations of State, critical constants, application to liquefaction of gases.

**Unit III: **

**Heat and First Law of Thermodynamics:** Thermal equilibrium, Zeroth law of thermodynamics, ideal gas temperature scale, heat as a form of energy, quantity of heat and specific heat, molar heat capacities of solids, the mechanical equivalent of heat, heat and work; First law of thermodynamics, Discussion on usefulness of First Law of Thermodynamics in Meteorology, some special cases of the first law of thermodynamics – (i) adiabatic process, (ii) isothermal process, (iii) isochoric process, (iv) cyclic process, (v) free expansion.

**Unit IV: **

**Entropy and Second Law of Thermodynamics:** Introduction, reversible and irreversible processes, the Carnot cycle, Carnot engine, Carnot theorem, absolute scale of temperature, second law of thermodynamics, efficiency of engines, the thermodynamic temperature scale, entropy in reversible and irreversible processes, entropy and the 72 II law, entropy and disorder, consequences of II and III law of thermodynamics, Second law of thermodynamics as a probabilistic statement.

Low temperature Physics – Porous Plug experiment, temperature of inversion, principle of regenerative cooling, liquefaction of air by Linde’s method.

**Unit V: **

**Thermodynamic potentials:** Internal Energy, Enthalpy, Helmholtz function, Gibbs function, relations among these functions, Gibbs-Helmholtz equations.

**Maxwell's Thermodynamic Relations:** Derivation of Maxwell's thermodynamic relations, TdS equations, Internal energy equations, Heat capacity equations. Change of temperature during Adiabatic process using Maxwell's relations.

**Textbooks: **

- Halliday and Resnick: Fundamentals of Physics, 9th edition, Wiley India, 2011.
- Brijlal ,N. Subramanyam P.S. Hemne: Heat Thermodynamics and Statistical Physics, 1st edition. S Chand Publishing, 2007.
- S C Gupta: Thermodynamics, 1st edition, Pearson, 2005.

**References: **

- R. H. Dittaman and M. W. Zemansky: Heat and Thermodynamics, 7th edition, The McGrawHill companies, 2007.
- S. J. Blundell and K. M. Blundell: Concepts in Thermal Physics, 2nd edition, Oxford 73 University Press, 2006.

**(A minimum of ten experiments to be done from the list given below) **

- Study of the oscillations of a column of water as a function of its length and study of damped oscillation.
- To determine the velocity of sound at Oo C and the end correction by setting up a resonance column (first resonance length).
- Study of torsional oscillations of a loaded wire and determination of the rigidity modulus of the material of the wire.
- Verification of Stefan’s Boltzmann law using Potentiometer.
- Study of Newton’s law of cooling.
- Determination of Thermal conductivity of a bad conductor by Lee Charlton method.
- Specific heat of a solid by the method of mixtures.
- Determination of latent heat of fusion of ice by calorimetric method.
- J by Joules Calorimeter.
- Study of transverse vibrations on a sonometer. To determine the frequency by (i) absolute method, (ii) Comparison method.
- Melde’s experiment – determination of frequency.
- Frequency of AC by a sonometer.