Qualification: 
M. Pharm., B. Pham.
anilakn@aims.amrita.edu

Anila K. N. joined as Lecturer in Department of Pharmacy Practice, Amrita School of Pharmacy in September 2015. She has teaching experience of about 4.7 years. She has served as Assistant Professor from 3rd March 2013 to 21st August 2015 in Pharmacy Practice department in Acharya & B M Reddy College of Pharmacy, Bengaluru, India. She has also worked as a community pharmacist for 5 months.

Publications

Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2017

Journal Article

S. Alexander and N, A. K., “A case report on anti-N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor encephalitis”, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 10, pp. 3-4, 2017.[Abstract]


Anti N-methyl-D-aspartate (NMDA) re-ceptor en-cephalitis is an immune medi-ated disorder and it is a dis-order of the limbic system that largely af-fects female children. Anti-NMDA recep-tor encephalitis was actually described as a paraneoplastic syndrome as it is associated with ovarian teratomas con-taining neural tissue with an-tibodies cross reacting to the NMDA recep-tors. Here we discuss a case of NMDA re-ceptor en-cephalitis. © 2017 The Authors.

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2017

Journal Article

K. Unnikrishnan and N, A. K., “A Case Report on Congenital Lobar Emphysema”, Asian Journal of Pharmacy and Clinical Research, vol. 10, no. 7, pp. 5-6, 2017.[Abstract]


Congenital lobar emphysema (CLE) disorder is an uncommon respiratory issue in which air can enter the lungs yet cannot escape, bringing about over inflation (hyperinflation) of the projections of the lung with an incidence 1 per 20,000-30,000 per birth. It is frequently recognized in babies or youthful newborn children; however, a few cases do not get to be distinctly evident until adulthood. This issue might be sufficiently serious to bring about related heart issues. We report a case of a 1-month-old female infant who showed the signs and symptoms of this disease, but responded well to her treatment and was discharged in a stable state.

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2017

Journal Article

I. E. Mathew, Baby, A., Joseph, S., Kumar, K. P. Gireesh, and N, A. K., “Study on clinical pharmacist initiated interventions on COPD and asthma patients”, Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, vol. 9, pp. 1212-1216, 2017.[Abstract]


Drug induced morbidity has become a common problem; it is often preceded by a DRP (Drug related Problems). Only a few studies have been conducted on DRPs in hospitalized patients in India. A prospective interventional was conducted in general medicine and emergency medicine departments of AIMS, Kochi. to analyse the impact of clinical pharmacist interventions on DRPs in patients suffering from asthma and COPD. An aggregate of 43 and 69 DRPs were identified from retrospective & prospective groups respectively from a total of 215 patient cases. Of total DRPs, 81.16% (56) clinical pharmacist recommendations were accepted and solved in consultation with health care providers and 18.57% suggestions were rejected. Drug related problems are frequent in hospitalized patients with asthma and COPD in retrospective and prospective group. Clinical pharmacist could resolve most of DRPs in consultation with other health care providers by interventions and high acceptance rate of these interventions suggest that a joint cohort between clinical pharmacist and other health care professionals can ensure a safer system of patient care. © 2017, Pharmainfo Publications. All rights reserved.

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2017

Journal Article

M. S. M. Iype, Kunoor, A., and N, A. K., “A Treatment Dilemma Concerning Immunosuppressant Use: A Case Report”, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 10, pp. 4-6, 2017.[Abstract]


Immunosuppressants including corticosteroids (prednisolone >15 mg/day) are responsible for an increased risk of susceptibility to infections (especially pneumonia, tuberculosis [TB] including extra pulmonary TB), an important safety concern when providing immunosuppressive therapy. Anti-TB treatment (ATT) is medicines used to treat tuberculosis, an infectious disease which can affect lungs and other organs. Isoniazid, rifampicin, and pyrazinamide are known to cause ATT induced hepatitis. The prevalence of immunosuppressant induced TB and pyrazinamide induced hepatotoxicity during treatment for active TB ranges to about 0.6%-1% and <1%, respectively. Here, we illustrate a typical case report of a 61-year-old woman who is a known case of interstitial lung disease and developed TB arthritis following therapy with the long-term use of immunosuppressants (prednisolone, azathioprine, leflunomide, and sulfasalazine). ATT regimen was started for TB arthritis which was later modified along with addition of liver protectant due to the development of hepatotoxicity. The causality of both the adverse drug reactions was confirmed to be probable via NARANJO causality assessment scale. This case highlights the incidence of infectious complications like TB which may be expected to be encountered more frequently in the future due to the increasing use of immunosuppressants for the treatment of allergic and inflammatory disorders.

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2017

Journal Article

R. Krishna, Kumar, B. Santhosh, Krishnan, S., N, A. K., and Lakshmi R., “A Review of Novel Anticoagulants”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research , vol. 9, no. 1, pp. 96-99, 2017.[Abstract]


The well-established indications for anticoagulant therapy include atrial fibrillation, venous thromboembolism (VTE) and mechanical heart valves. Vitamin K antagonists are the most common anticoagulants used in the outpatient setting. Two new classes of anticoagulants (direct thrombin and factor Xa inhibitors) have shown promise as alternatives to the vitamin K antagonists. Specifically, dabigatran, rivaroxaban and apixaban have been studied in comparison to warfarin for their use in preventing systemic stroke/embolism in patients with atrial fibrillation and for managing the recurrence of VTE. This article will review the literature on the efficacy of these agents, as well as the benefits and disadvantages of their use.

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2017

Journal Article

R. Krishna, Kumar, B. Santhosh, Krishnan, S., N, A. K., and Lakshmi R., “Review on Noval Anticoagulants”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, 2017.

2017

Journal Article

S. Keerthana PC and N, A. K., “Carbamazepine-induced SLE-A rare and serious ADR”, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences. , vol. 9, no. 1, 2017.[Abstract]


Carbamazepine is a commonly used antiseizure medication. Carbamazepine-induced SLE (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus) is a very rare phenomenon. Drug-induced SLE is an autoimmune disease caused by long-term use of certain drugs. Carbamazepine is a drug with low risk for causing lupus symptoms. The process that leads to drug-induced SLE are not entirely understood. A very few cases are reported with carbamazepine association with SLE. Herein we report a case of 4 y old girl with SLE induced by carbamazepine showing a causality score of 8 by Naranjo ADR probability scale. More »»

2017

Journal Article

S. Keerthana PC, N, A. K., and Reji, R., “Naproxen-induced erythema multiforme-a rare case report. ”, International Journal of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, vol. 9, no. 3, 2017.[Abstract]


Erythema multiforme (EM) is a hypersensitivity reaction characterized by varying degrees of blisters and ulcerations. We report a case of 4 y old girl child born for Non-custodial parents who has a history of seizures and a known case of carbamazepine-induced SLE (Systemic Lupus Erythematosus) when treated with anti-inflammatory drugs developed EM. The offending drug was identified and withdrawn. Steroid was given as a part of symptomatic treatment. Non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are one of the most commonly prescribed groups of drugs for a variety of indications. The patient gradually improved and got discharged. More »»

2016

Journal Article

A. R. Das, Saikeerthana, P. C., Raj, K., and N, A. K., “Carbamazepine induced toxic epidermal necrolysis – A rare case report”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, vol. 40, pp. 18-19, 2016.[Abstract]


Toxic epidermal necrolysis (TEN), otherwise known as Lyell's syndrome is a rare dermatological disease which commonly is of drug-induced in etiology and includes drugs like antiepileptics, antiretroviral and antituberculosis drugs. Despite of its adverse effects like nausea, vomiting, haematological disorders, serious life threatening reactions like Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis (TEN), Stevens Johnson syndrome (SJS), can also occur. Here we are presenting a case report of carbamazepine induced TEN when prescribed for herpetic neuralgias in a 54 year old female patient. She developed fever and had swelling of face, both of upper limbs, excessive peeling of skin over face, trunk, back of trunk discharge from eyes after 2 days of treatment with carbamazepine. Dermatological consultation was taken and confirmed to be TEN secondary to drug induced. © 2016, Global Research Online. All rights reserved.

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2016

Journal Article

Ja Karakkattu, Vinod, Ka, N, A. K., and Pillai, Rb, “Pancreatic cancer and its treatment: An insight into its recent developments”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, vol. 40, pp. 11-17, 2016.[Abstract]


Pancreatic cancer is known for its unobservable signs and symptoms, rapid growth and resistance to available treatment modalities. Pancreatic cancer is of two types; exocrine pancreatic cancer and NETs. Methods of treatment vary from surgical procedures to radiotherapy to chemotherapy/ other drugs either as monotherapy or a combination of any of the above therapies. However, studies have shown that such cancers are resistant to treatments that are available hence research is now targeting towards newer methods of treatment of pancreatic carcinoma. Various chemotherapeutic drugs individually or in combination are the mainstay in treatment of pancreatic carcinoma that cannot be surgically removed. Current research has now better understood the differences that occur in pancreatic cancer and have used this new set of information to identify new treatment modalities. This review article is to describe all the available treatment modalities available and focus on the newer methods of targeting pancreatic cancerous growth and spread. © 2016, Global Research Online. All rights reserved.

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2016

Journal Article

S. Krishnan, Mathew, A. S., and N, A. K., “A review on biosimilars - A wheel of fortune for Indian pharma industries”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, vol. 41, pp. 52-57, 2016.[Abstract]


A bio similar is an organic product that is endorsed in view of a demonstrating that it is exceptionally like a FDA-approved natural product. They are practically identical to generics as in they are endorsed substitutes for particular bio-built treatments, or biologics. Thus, biosimilars are “comparable yet not the same” or at the end of the day biosimilars are “the twin yet not the clone” to the first biologic pioneer item. The troubles/barriers with bio similar are that, the two bio similar have a different beginning, have identical therapeutic effect, may additionally have different side-effects and for this reason require thorough testing. The European Medicines Agency (EMA) turned into the principal administrative office to affirm a bio similar. The Indian generics in industry got its first massive break in 1984, when the US surpassed what is referred to as Hatch-Waxman act. Biosimilars marketplace in India presently includes eight biosimilars. India has effectively ventured out to tap the rising open door in the biosimilars’ space. Main aim of bio similar offers guaranteed increase in patient access to the biological therapy and health care cost. In India bio similar has engrossed large investments in the areas of research, clinical trials and manufacturing. © 2016, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research,

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2016

Journal Article

S. Keerthana PC, N, A. K., Jacob, M., and Raju, D. S., “Azithromycin Induced Angioedema – A Rare Case Report”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, 2016.[Abstract]


Angioedema is defined as sudden swelling of the skin, subcutaneous or submucosal tissue, and respiratory or gastrointenstinal tracts. Angioedema is non pitting, transient (lasting up to 7 days), and independent of the position of the body – in contrast to edema, which is pitting, persistent and dependent on body position. In this condition Inflammation, arteriolar dilation and the resulting vascular leakage and tissue swelling occurs due to release of inflammatory vasoactive mediators such as histamine, serotonin and kinins, eg., bradykinin. Here we present a case of gentleman who was a known case of Lupoid Vasculitis who had throat pain since 2 days consulted in a local hospital and was started with T. Azithromycin 500 mg OD. Following the medication intake he developed swelling of neck, followed by lips, maxillary and mandibular area. More »»

2015

Journal Article

D. C. Suhas Reddy, Sankar, B. K., R, A. H., N, A. K., Majumder, P., Mahammed, N., and Maheshwari, U., “A study on prescription pattern of ceftriaxone in general medicine department of a south Indian teaching hospital”, Indian Journal of Research in Pharmacy and Biotechnology. , 2015.[Abstract]


A prospective observational study was conducted to assess the prescribing pattern of ceftriaxone and to determine the indication for which ceftriaxone prescribed in a general medicine department of south Indian teaching hospital. A total of 200 prescriptions were collected, collated and analysed from the general medicine department for a period of 6 months. Out of 200 study population included in study, majority are males. The frequent condition for hospitalization and for which the ceftriaxone were prescribed was respiratory tract infection. The defined daily dosage was proper for 182 patients and average DDD of ceftriaxone was 2.06. . The hospital was largely in compliances with WHO DDDs.The average total cost incurred for Ceftriaxone per patient was found to be Rs.654.64, for the average of 2.32 days. The specificity of prescribing patter of ceftriaxone was more, it means specific therapy was more than empirical therapy. Prescriber should follow the standard treatment guidelines for improving the rational use and to prevent the development of resistance. The duration of use of ceftriaxone is according to the guidelines. More »»

2013

Journal Article

A. K. N and Emmanuel James, “Clinical pharmacist governed anticoagulation service in stroke unit of a tertiary care teaching hospital”, Asian Journal of Pharmaceutical and Clinical Research, vol. 6, pp. 147-150, 2013.[Abstract]


Many reports have documented the ability of anticoagulation management services by clinical pharmacist to help patients receiving anticoagulants especially warfarin therapy achieves better outcomes. The present prospective and interventional study was carried out in stroke inpatient department of a tertiary care teaching hospital for a period of one year. The clinical pharmacist in the anticoagulation service had taken over the responsibilities like therapeutic drug monitoring of all patients of stroke ward, warfarin dosage adjustment in direct and via telephonic calls, management of warfarin related and unrelated problems including ADR monitoring and interaction checking and sorting out it, patient knowledge assessment using a set of validated questionnaires, patient counseling, providing information leaflets etc. Clinical outcomes were measured at the end of study. The establishment of anticoagulation clinic in the hospital helped the Stroke unit in bringing their patients under targeted anticoagulation. It helped in improving patient's knowledge compliance, reducing incidence of interactions and adverse effects. A value p<0.05 indicated the significant improvement in the patient's knowledge on oral anticoagulation by clinical pharmacist interventions. Thus clinic laid a foundation in building good and healthy relation between physician, pharmacist and patients.

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2013

Journal Article

A. K. N and Emmanuel James, “A Study on Impact of a Clinical Pharmacist in Improving Knowledge of Cardiology Out-patients about Oral Anticoagulants”, Indian Journal of Pharmacy Practice, vol. 6, p. 31, 2013.[Abstract]


The study was conducted to find the magnitude of impact of a clinical pharmacist in improving knowledge of cardiology patients about oral anticoagulants. The interventional group received an additional care by the clinical pharmacist and was compared with a control group which received only the usual care of the physician. Patients in the intervention group were assessed for their baseline knowledge using validated questionnaire about the use of anticoagulants and counseled regarding the use of oral anticoagulants, side effects, dietary recommendations, importance of INR (International normalised ratio) tests and dose titrations, compliance and provided information booklets and contact numbers for reporting INR results and reassessed during their follow up. There was statistically significant improvement in knowledge score of patients in the intervention group as compared to control group and statistically significant increase in the number of INR's within target range for the patients in intervention group as compared to control group. The intervention group showed much better improvement in knowledge score (p<0.05) which was evident by the mean difference which had an increase of 5.864 points compared to control group's 0.907
points. The fraction of INRs within therapeutic range indicated better anticoagulation control in the intervention group compared to control group (0.632 vs 0.432). This study showed that knowledge of patients regarding oral anticoagulation therapy was insufficient before the clinical pharmacist's involvement. Counseling by a clinical pharmacist will improve the outcome of the patients taking oral anticoagulants as evidenced by the increase in the values of INRs and showed better anticoagulation control

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2012

Journal Article

Lakshmi R., Anitha, S., N, A. K., and Roshni, P. R., “Warfarin resistance: mechanisms and management”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences and Research, vol. 3, no. 2, p. 353, 2012.[Abstract]


Anticoagulants are a class of drugs commonly used to prevent the blood from forming dangerous clots that could result in a stroke. Warfarin is an oral anticoagulant. Warfarin differs from most other drugs in that the dosage required to achieve a desired therapeutic effect varies greatly among individuals. Resistance to warfarin has been described as the inability to prolong the prothrombin time or raise the international normalized ratio (INR) into the therapeutic range when the drug is given at normally prescribed doses. However, a higher warfarin requirement does not itself establish the diagnosis of warfarin resistance. Warfarin resistance can be classified as acquired versus hereditary. It can be diagnosed by laboratory studies and can be managed.

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2011

Journal Article

S. Sekhar, N, A. K., Venugopal, S., Ponnechen, M., Paul, M. C., and Lakshmi R., “Patient counselling for anticoagulation patients.”, International Journal of Drug Discovery And Technology. , 2011.

2011

Journal Article

A. K. N, R, P., and Sekhar, S., “Genesis and development of drug information centres in India ”, Indian Journal of Hospital Pharmacy , vol. 48, 2011.

207
PROGRAMS
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AMRITA
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