Bipin Nair received his Ph.D. in Microbiology in 1986 from the Department of Microbiology, M.S. University of Baroda, India and received his post-doctoral training at the University of Tennessee, Memphis, USA, in the Dept. of Pharmacology from 1987-1992. His major contributions during that phase were in the areas of growth factor receptor signaling, GTP binding proteins and second messenger pathways.

Dr. Nair then moved to the Biotechnology industry in 1993 and held the position of Senior Scientist- Lead Discovery at MDS Pharma Services in Seattle, Washington, USA. His experience with High Throughput Screening and application of novel technologies to a wide range of target areas, resulted in many significant achievements for MDS, during his tenure as Research Manager--Lead Discovery, at MDS Pharma Services.

In Dec. 2004, Dr. Nair moved back to India and took over as Professor and Chairman of the Centre for Biotechnology, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amritapuri Campus. Under his leadership, the School of Biotechnology has been a trail-blazer in the Biotechnology arena for both undergraduate and postgraduate academic programs as well as providing active research opportunities for a large number of students pursuing their Ph.D program at the School. Dr. Nair is also the Coordinator of the TIFAC Centre of Relevance and Excellence in Biomedical Technology at Amrita University, under the Mission Reach program of the Department of Science and Technology, Govt. of India. Apart from setting up the State of the Art Amrita Biomedical Engineering (AMBE) Research Centre as part of the TIFAC CORE, Dr. Nair also led the group that developed a prototype of an Automated Insulin Pump, which resulted in Amrita University’s first patent from the USPTO. Subsequently a number of patent applications (both India and USA) in the area of biomedical devices and diagnostics have been filed. With active national and international collaborations, Dr. Nair’s laboratory also has well-funded(DST,DBT,CSIR, MHRD) research initiatives in Natural Products Lead Discovery with a focus on wound healing and cancer. Dr. Nair has numerous publications in national and international scientific journals. He is also the Discipline wise National Coordinator for the development of Biotechnology Virtual Labs being developed under the MHRD –NMEICT program.

Another significant recent (April 2014) feather in Dr. Nair’s cap has been the selection of the Amrita School of Biotechnology by the Bill and Melinda Gates Foundation for the Gates Foundation-DBT-BIRAC Grand Challenge India Sanitation Award.

Dr. Nair is an Associate Editor for the International Journal ‘Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine’ and also serves on several national and international advisory committees.

Major Research Interests

  • Development of low cost Biomedical Devices and Diagnostics in the management of
    1. Diabetes
    2. Design and development of an automated Insulin Pump which resulted in the award of an United States Patent (USPTO No. 8,034,019 B2, October 11, 2011).
    3. Development of low cost non-enzymatic glucose and cholesterol sensors.
    4. Design and development of a Lab-on-a-Chip device for simultaneous detection of glucose, HbA1c, Cholesterol and Creatinine
  • Identification of Natural Product Lead molecules as potential modulators and elucidation of molecular mechanisms involved in impaired wound healing in Diabetes.
    1. Elucidating the role of Matrix Metalloproteinases (MMP2 and MMP9) in wound healing.
    2. Identification of the molecular mechanisms involving Nitric Oxide and Epidermal Growth Factor in the wound healing process.
  • Understanding the molecular mechanisms underlying the regulation of Matrix Metalloproteinases and oncogenic signaling systems by Natural Products and dissecting the regulatory crosstalk between EGF Receptor signaling cascades and gelatinases.
  • Studying the role of quorum sensing and biofilm formation in microbial pathogenesis and identification of natural product inhibitors that block this process.
  • GATES Foundation-DBT-BIRAC Grand Challenge Award to develop Sanitation solutions: Identification of bacteriophages to target and eliminate pathogens and odor causing bacteria in fecal waste. Project also focuses on developing viral and non-viral lytic agents to combat helminth and protozoan contamination in waste water


  • 1986: Doctor of Philosophy in Microbiology
    Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, India
    Thesis Title:  “Some regulatory aspects of carbohydrate metabolism in Neurospora crassa.”
    Graduate Supervisor:  Dr. H.S. Chhatpar.
  • 1981: Masters in Microbiology
    Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, India
  • 1979: Bachelors in Microbiology
    Gujarat University, Ahmedabad, India

Awards and Positions

  • Member, DBT Task Force, Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, June 2014
  • Recipient of Bill and Melinda GATES Foundation – Department of Biotechnology, GOI/BIRAC Grand Challenge Award, March 2014
  • Member of Appraisal Committee, The Modified Special IncentivePackage Scheme (M-SIPS), Govt. of India Ministry of Communication and Information Technology- Department of Electronics and Information Technology (DeitY)  2013
  • Member, Governing Body, National Center for Cell Science, Pune, India, May 2013
  • Associate Editor, Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine, August 2013
  • Coordinator, TIFAC, Centre of Relevance and Excellence in Biomedical Technology, Dept. of Science and Technology, Government of India, 2004                                     
  • Recipient of the Cora Louis Carson award for the best ranked grant at the Peer Review of the American Heart Association, Tennessee Affiliate, USA, March 1992
  • Recipient of Grant-in Aid awarded by American HeartAssociation, Tennessee Affiliate, USA, 1992-1993
  • Recipient of Post-doctoral Research Fellowship awarded by American Heart Association, Tennessee Affiliate, USA, 1990-1992
  • Recipient of Senior Research Fellowship, awarded by Dept of Atomic Energy, Govt. of India, 1983-1985
  • Recipient of Junior Research Fellowship, awarded by Dept of Atomic Energy, Govt. of India, 1982-1983


  • External Examiner for Ph.D. thesis evaluation, IIT Mumbai, June,2014
  • External Examiner for Ph.D. thesis evaluation, Bharathidasan  University,Tiruchirappalli, Tamilnadu.




Professional Appointments

Year Affiliation
Jul 2007 - Present Dean, School of Biotechnology, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amritapuri, Kollam, Kerala, India and Coordinator Dept. of Science and Technology-TIFAC CORE in Biomedical Technology
Nov 2004 -  Jun 2007 Professor and Chairman, Centre for Biotechnology, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Amritapuri, Kollam, Kerala, India, Coordinator Dept. of Science and Technology-TIFAC CORE in Biomedical Technology
2000 - 2004 Research Manager, Lead Discovery, MDS Pharma Services, Bothell, WA.
Management of High Throughput Screening projects for worldwide client base Exploration/ Investigation of novel technologies and platforms to integrate High Throughput Screening technologies and dramatically accelerate identification of quality lead compounds
1995 - 2000 Senior Scientist, Drug Discovery Services, MDS Panlabs, Bothell, WA.
Management of screening data using an in-house Laboratory Information Management system (LIMS)
Exploration/ Investigation of novel technologies and platforms to integrate High Throughput Screening technologies and dramatically accelerate identification of quality lead compounds. Successful coordination of wide diversity of High Throughput Screening projects for world-wide client base.
1993 - 1995 Scientist, Panlabs Inc.  Bothell, WA.
Development of novel assays employing new technologies and assay procedures.
High Throughput Screening of Natural Products and Chemical libraries against wide diversity of targets employing absorbance, radiometric, fluorometric and chemiluminescence formats in isolated membranes and whole cell analysis.
1991 - 1993 Instructor, Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Tennessee, Memphis; USA
Supervisor: Dr. M. Heimberg
1987 - 1991 Postdoctoral Research Associate;  Department of Pharmacology, School of Medicine, University of Tennessee, Memphis, USA with Dr. T.B. Patel
1986 – 1987 Postdoctoral Fellow;  Department of Biochemistry, University of Mississippi Medical Center, Jackson, Mississippi, USA  with Dr. A.J. Wahba. Worked on regulation of protein synthesis initiation in rabbit reticulocytes
1982 - 1983 Teaching Assistant; Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, India; Teaching courses in Microbiology and Biochemistry

Abstracts and Invited Talks

1989 T. B. Patel and B.G. Nair (1989) Regulation of rat hepatic adenylate cyclase by pyridine nucleotides. Joint Meeting of the American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and American Society for Cell Biology. January 29 - February 2, 1989. San Fransisco, California. Abstract No. 2786. J. Cell Biol. 107(6), December 1988, p495a.
1989 B. G. Nair, H.M. Rashed, and T.B. Patel (1989) Guanine nucleotide binding protein mediated regulation of rat cardiac adenylate cyclase by epidermal growth factor.  Joint Meeting of the American Society of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and American Society for Cell Biology.  Jan 29 - February 2 1989, San Fransisco, California. Abstract No. 3936.  J. Cell. Biol. 107(6), December 1988, p.. 696a.
1990 B. G. Nair, G. Milligan, and T. B. Patel (1990).  Gs alpha mediates epidermal growth factor     elicited stimulation of rat cardiac adenylate cyclase.  Joint Meeting of the American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and American Association of Immunologists.  June 3-June 7, 1990, New Orleans, Louisiana.  Abstract No 515. FASEB J. 4(7), April 1990, pA1782.
1990 L. Steinke, Y. Yu, H.M. Rashed, B.G. Nair, J.M. Seyer, and T.B. Patel (1990) Upregulation of the ANF receptor/Guanylate cyclase in regenerating rat liver. Joint meeting of American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology and American Association of Immunologists.  June3 - June 7, 1990.  New Orleans, LA.  Abstract No. 1702.  FASEB J. 4(7), April 1990, p.A1986.
1991 B. G. Nair and T.B. Patel (1991) EGF receptor tyrosine kinase is essential for stimulation of rat cardiac adenylate cyclase by EGF.  FASEB Meeting, April 21-25, 1991, Atlanta, Georgia.  Abstract No 4718.  FASEB J. 5 (5) p. A1184.
1991 C.D. Swenson, A.R. Amin, B. Xue, B. Nair and G.J. Thorbecke (1991).  Mechanism of    IgD-R upregulation on T cells from young and aged mice.  FASEB Meeting, April 21-25, 1991, Atlanta, Georgia.  Abstract No 2104.  FASEB J.  5(4), p A732.
1991 M. E. Steinhelper, B.G. Nair, H. M. Rashed, T.B. Patel, and L.J. Field (1991).  Guanylate cyclase coupled ANF receptors are down regulated in hypotensive transgenic mice expressing a transthyretin-ANF fusion gene.  FASEB Meeting, April 21-25, 1991.Abstract No. 1749.  FASEB J.  5(4) p A671.
1992 A.R. Amin, C.D. Swenson, B. Xue, B.G. Nair, T.B. Patel, and G.H. Thorbecke (1992) Upregulation of IgD-receptors on murine T Helper cells by IgD requires tyrosine kinase activity.  8th International Congress of Immunology, Budapest, Hungary, August 23-28,1992.
1994 B.G. Nair, C. Mckenzie, K.Leung and J.Paslay  (1994)  Characterization of Calcium - Activated Potassium Channel activity by a High Throughput Assay employing 86Rubidium Efflux.  IBC Meeting on Signal Tranduction Therapy; Advances in Understanding and Drug Discovery; San Fransisco California,  August 4-5  1994.
2001 B.G. Nair and Khisal Alvi.  (2001)  High Throughput Screening of Natural Products—More Than A Numbers Game.  High Throughput Screening Instrumentation and Miniaturization;  ISI sponsored 1st International Conference on Advances in High Throughput Screening Technologies, Atlantic City, New Jersey.  Feb. 2001.
2003 Karen Yoshino and Bipin Nair  (2003)  Extracellular Nucleotides Mediate Calcium Signaling  Through Endogenous P2Y2 Receptors in Chinese Hamster Ovary Cells   Society for Biomolecular Screening; 9th Annual Conference—Drug Discovery : At the Cutting Edge;  September 21-25, 2003, Portland, Oregon, USA.
2007 Vishnu Prasad, Asoke Banerjee, Bipin G Nair, Anilkumar G (2007) An aliphatic   compound from Bauhinia acuminate enhances GLUT4 translocation and glucose uptake activity. Name of the Organizer: American Association of Cell Biology Conference Venue: Washington Page No: B41
2006 Suma Mohan, Jeff Perry, Bipin G Nair, Anilkumar G (2006) Structural Analysis of Class   I facilitative Glucose Transporters Name of the Conference: INCOB 2006 Satellite     meeting: Computational Insights into Biological Systems Duration of the Conference:    Dec 2006 Name of the Organizer: Indian Institute of Science Conference Venue:   Bangalore Page No: 48
  Vishnu Prasad CN, Asoke Banerjee, Bipin G Nair, Anilkumar G   Bauhinia fornificata leaf  extract exhibits GLUT4 transloation activity Name of the Conference: 75th Annual     Meeting of Society of Biological Chemists (India), Theme: Metabolism to Metabolome   Name of the Organizer: Society of Biological Chemistry, New Delhi  Conference Venue:    Jawaharlal Nehru University, New Delhi Page No: 200
2007 Invited talk “Drug discovery from Natural Sources”, in the Department of Botany/ Biotechnology, Kerala University, Trivandrum, April 9th, 2007.
2007 Invited to present the theme paper “Nanotechnology in Drug Development & Delivery” in the 7th Annual conference of the Society of  Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, Nov.30, 2007
2008 Invited talk “Cross talk between Signaling Systems” in the National Science Day Celebrations, Rajiv Gandhi Centre for Biotechnology, Trivandrum, Feb 28th, 2008.
2008 Invited talk “Cell Manipulation in Drug Discovery”, in the Golden Jubilee Celebrations of the Department of Botany, Kerala University, Trivandrum, Mar. 27th 2008.
2008 Invited talk “Green Pharmacy and the Environment”, in the National Seminar on Biotechnology for a Clean Environment at SN College, Kollam, Oct. 15th, 2008.
2008 Invited talk “The Wound Healing Process - Prospects for the Mathematical Modelling”, University of Milan, Italy, 17th Nov. 2008.
2010 Invited talk , Academic Staff College, Kerala University, 06th Aug, 2010
2013 Invited talk : “International conference on Integrating Basic and Translational Research inModern Biology”, Department of Microbiology and Biotechnology center, The Maharaja Sayajirao University of Baroda, Vadodara. 27th /28th December 2013.
2014 Invited talk: APA International conference on Polymers: Vision and Innovations (19/20thFebruary 2014),IIT Delhi.


2015 Cost-Effective Device and Cloud Enabled Smart solutions for diabetes care 
Principal Investigator
Funded by BIRAC, Govt. of India
2015 Modelling the cerebellar information code in large- scale realistic circuits- Towards pharmacologival predictions and robotic abstractions
Co-Principal Investigator
Funded by DST, Govt. of India
2014 Identification and Characterisation of the role of Allium sativum-microbiome on the production of the therapeutic metabolite
Co-Principal Investigator
Funded by DST, Govt. of India
2014 Use of viral agents, microbial fuel cell and effec tive recycling strategy to improve the economics of human waste disposal
Principal Investigator
Funded by BIRAC & DBT, Govt. of India and The Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation
2013 Anarcadic acid-a novel template for cancer therapy
Principal Investigator
Funded by CSIR, Govt. of India
2012 Development of non-enzymatic glucose sensor and glucometer
Co-Principal Investigator
Funded by DBT, Govt. of India
2012 Lab-on-a-chip(LOC) for the monitoring of diabe tes, cholesterol and kidney function
Principal Investigator
Funded by DBT, Govt. of India
2012 Development of peptide inhibitors against functional components of snake venom
Principal Investigator
Funded by SERB, DST, Govt. of India
2012 Neurophysiological recording and modeling fast response timing of granule and golgi cell respons es for cerebellar function
Co-Principal Investigator
Funded by DST, Govt. of India
2011 Bio inspired processor design for cognitive func tions via detailed copmputational modelling of cerebellar granular layer
Co-Principal Investigator
Funded by DST, Govt. of India
2009  Value addition to seabukthorn through isolation & characterisation of pharmacologically active compounds
Principal Investigator
Funded by DST, Govt. of India
2004 Adaptive and automatic insulin pump
Principal Investigator
Funded by TIFAC-CORE, DST, Govt. of India


Publication Type: Journal Article
Year of Publication Publication Type Title
2016 Journal Article K. Dhara, Ramachandran, Ta, Bipin G. Nair Dr., and T. G. Satheesh Babu, “Au nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide for the fabrication of disposable nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide sensor”, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol. 764, pp. 64-70, 2016.[Abstract]

A simple approach is followed for the fabrication of disposable nonenzymatic hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) sensor using gold nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide (Au/rGO) nanocomposite. Au/rGO nanocomposite was prepared by one pot reduction of graphene oxide and Au(III) ions. The composite was characterized using various spectroscopic and microscopic techniques. The Au/rGO nanocomposite suspension was cast on the indigenously fabricated screen printed electrode (SPE). Voltammetric studies on the modified electrode showed that the Au/rGO nanocomposite modified SPE have enhanced catalytic activity towards H2O2. The sensor exhibited linear relationship in the range from 20 μM to 10 mM with a sensitivity of 1238 μA mM- 1 cm- 2 and a limit of detection 0.1 μM. The sensor also showed excellent selectivity in presence of other electroactive species such as ascorbic acid, dopamine, glucose and uric acid. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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2016 Journal Article S. Diwakar, Radhamani, R., Sasidharakurup, H., Kumar, D., Nizar, N., Dr. Achuthan, K., and Bipin G. Nair Dr., “Assessing students and teachers experience on simulation and remote biotechnology virtual labs: A case study with a light microscopy experiment”, Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST, vol. 160, pp. 44-51, 2016.[Abstract]

With recent trends of using Information and Communication Technologies in education, virtual labs have become more prevalent in classrooms of most schools and universities, especially in South India. The purpose of this paper was to perform a comparative analysis of virtual learning components such as animations, simulations and real-time remotely controlled experiments. As a part of this study, we conducted a series of biotechnology virtual lab workshops for University-level users within India and collected feedback related to the usage of virtual labs via direct approach. The survey amongst the students and teachers suggested simulation-based labs were more preferred in enhancing teaching and learning strategy compared to graphics-mediated animations and remotely controlled experiments. This paper also reports some of the issues faced by virtual lab users. Studies indicated that even though the web-based technologies are a new venture in education, it still poses adaptability issues. © Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering 2016.

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2016 Journal Article S. Dr. Diwakar, Kumar, D., Radhamani, R., Sasidharakurup, H., Nizar, N., Dr. Achuthan, K., Prema Nedungadi, Raman, R., and Bipin G. Nair Dr., “Complementing Education via Virtual Labs: Implementation and Deployment of Remote Laboratories and Usage Analysis in South Indian Villages”, International Journal of Online Engineering (iJOE), vol. 12, pp. 8–15, 2016.[Abstract]

ICT-enabled virtual and remote labs have become a platform augmenting user engagement in blended education scenarios enhancing University education in rural India. A novel trend is the use of remote laboratories as learning and teaching tools in classrooms and elsewhere. This paper reports case studies based on our deployment of 20 web-based virtual labs with more than 170+ online experiments in Biotechnology and Biomedical engineering discipline with content for undergraduate and postgraduate education. Via hands-on workshops and direct feedback using questionnaires, we studied the role of remote lab experiments as learning and teaching tools. Although less reliable than direct feedback, we also included online feedback to perceive blended and remote learning styles among various users. Student and teacher user groups suggested significant usage adaptability of experimental process and indicated usage of remote labs as supplementary tools for complementing laboratory education. Usage analysis implicated the role of online labs as interactive textbooks augmenting student interaction and positive correlates to learning. More »»
2016 Journal Article D. Nair, Vanuopadath, M., Bipin G. Nair Dr., Gopalakrishnapai, J., and S, S., “Identification and characterization of a library of surfactins and fengycins from a marine endophytic Bacillus sp.”, Journal of Basic Microbiology, 2016.[Abstract]

An endophytic bacterial strain from a marine green alga, Ulva lactuca, was isolated and identified by 16S rRNA gene sequencing method. The bacterial isolate was found to secrete two major families of cyclic depsilipopeptides, surfactins, and fengycins. Sequencing of the isolated lipopeptides was carried out using the MS(n) data obtained from an electrospray ionization (ESI) ion trap mass spectrometer coupled to an HPLC system. The assigned sequences were confirmed by a chemical derivatization approach involving esterification followed by mass spectrometric analysis. Distinction of leucine residues from isoleucine was established through a combined electron transfer dissociation-collision-induced dissociation (ETD-CID) method. The fengycins described in this study were found to cause significant delay of growth of two plants, Vigna radiata (mung bean) and Oryza sativa (rice). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first study describing identification and characterization of cyclic peptides from an endophytic Bacillus sp. isolated from marine algae.

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2016 Journal Article H. Parasuram, Bipin G. Nair Dr., D‘Angelo, E., Hines, M., Naldi, G., and Dr. Diwakar, S., “Computational Modeling of Single Neuron Extracellular Electric Potentials and Network Local Field Potentials using LFPsim”, Frontiers in Computational Neuroscience, vol. 10, 2016.[Abstract]

Local Field Potentials (LFPs) are population signals generated by complex spatiotemporal interaction of current sources and dipoles. Mathematical computations of LFPs allow the study of circuit functions and dysfunctions via simulations. This paper introduces LFPsim, a NEURON-based tool for computing population LFP activity and single neuron extracellular potentials. LFPsim was developed to be used on existing cable compartmental neuron and network models. Point source, line source, and RC based filter approximations can be used to compute extracellular activity. As a demonstration of efficient implementation, we showcase LFPs from mathematical models of electrotonically compact cerebellum granule neurons and morphologically complex neurons of the neocortical column. LFPsim reproduced neocortical LFP at 8, 32, and 56 Hz via current injection, in vitro post-synaptic N2a, N2b waves and in vivo T-C waves in cerebellum granular layer. LFPsim also includes a simulation of multi-electrode array of LFPs in network populations to aid computational inference between biophysical activity in neural networks and corresponding multi-unit activity resulting in extracellular and evoked LFP signals.

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2015 Journal Article Ka Dhara, Ramachandran, Ta, Bipin G. Nair Dr., and T. G. Satheesh Babu, “Single step synthesis of Au-CuO nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide for high performance disposable nonenzymatic glucose sensor”, Journal of Electroanalytical Chemistry, vol. 743, pp. 1-9, 2015.[Abstract]

A nonenzymatic electrochemical glucose sensor was fabricated using gold-copper oxide nanoparticles decorated reduced graphene oxide (Au-CuO/rGO). A novel one step chemical process was employed for the synthesis of nanocomposite. Morphology and crystal planes of the nanocomposite were characterized using high resolution scanning electron microscopy (HRSEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) respectively. The Au-CuO/rGO nanocomposite was dispersed in N,N-dimethyl formamide (DMF) and drop-casted on the working area of the indigenously fabricated screen printed electrode (SPE). The sensor showed good electrocatalytic activity in alkaline medium for the direct electrooxidation of glucose with linear detection range of 1 μM to 12 mM and a lower detection limit of 0.1 μM. The sensor exhibited an excellent sensitivity 2356 μA mM- 1 cm- 2. Sensor was used for the determination of serum glucose concentration and the results obtained were compared with commercially available test strips. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

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2015 Journal Article P. V. Suneesh, Sara, V. Vidhu, Ramachandran, Ta, Bipin G. Nair Dr., and T. G. Satheesh Babu, “Co-Cu alloy nanoparticles decorated TiO2 nanotube arrays for highly sensitive and selective nonenzymatic sensing of glucose”, Sensors and Actuators, B: Chemical, vol. 215, pp. 337-344, 2015.[Abstract]

A nonenzymatic glucose sensor was fabricated by electrodepositing cobalt rich cobalt-copper alloy nanoparticles (Co-CuNPs) on vertically aligned TiO2 nanotube (TDNT) arrays. For this, TDNT arrays with tube diameter of 60 nm were synthesized by electrochemical anodization. The composition of the electrodeposited alloy was optimized based on the electrocatalytic activity towards glucose oxidation. This is achieved by controlling the concentration of electrolyte and time of deposition. Chemical composition of the optimized Co-Cu alloy nanoparticles is determined to be Cu0.15Co2.84O4 with fcc crystalline structure. The sensor showed two linear range of detection with high sensitivity of 4651.0 μA mM-1 cm-2 up to 5 mM and 2581.70 μA mM-1 cm-2 from 5 mM to 12 mM with a lower detection limit of 0.6 μM (S/N = 3). The sensor is highly selective to glucose in the presence of various exogeneous and endogeneous interfering species and other sugars. The response of the sensor towards blood serum was in good agreement with that of commercially available glucose sensors. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

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2015 Journal Article P. Nanjan, Nambiar, J., Bipin G. Nair Dr., and Banerji, A., “Synthesis and Discovery of (I-3,II-3)-Biacacetin as a Novel Non-zinc Binding Inhibitor of MMP-2 and MMP-9”, Bioorganic & Medicinal Chemistry, vol. 23, pp. 3781 - 3787, 2015.[Abstract]

Abstract Eleven biflavones (7a–b and 9a–i) were synthesised by a simple and efficient protocol and screened for MMP-2 and MMP-9 inhibitory activities. Amongst them, a natural product-like analog, (I-3,II-3)-biacacetin (9h) was found to be the most potent inhibitor. Molecular docking studies suggest that unlike most of the known inhibitors, 9h inhibits MMP-2 and MMP-9 through non-zinc binding interactions.

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2015 Journal Article E. S. Dove, İ Barlas, Ö., Birch, K., Boehme, C., Borda-Rodriguez, A., Byne, W. M., Chaverneff, F., Coşkun, Y., Dahl, M. - L., Dereli, T., Dr. Diwakar, S., Elbeyli, L., Endrenyi, L., Eroğlu-Kesim, B., Ferguson, L. R., Güngör, K., Gürsoy, U., Hekim, N., Huzair, F., Kaushik, K., Kickbusch, I., Kıroğlu, O., Kolker, E., Könönen, E., Lin, B., Llerena, A., Malha, F., Bipin G. Nair Dr., Patrinos, G. P., Şardaş, S., Sert, Ö., Srivastava, S., Steuten, L. M. G., Toraman, C., Vayena, E., Wang, W., Warnich, L., and Özdemir, V., “An Appeal to the Global Health Community for a Tripartite Innovation: An “Essential Diagnostics List,”“Health in All Policies,” and “See-Through 21st Century Science and Ethics””, Omics: a journal of integrative biology, vol. 19, pp. 435–442, 2015.[Abstract]

Diagnostics spanning a wide range of new biotechnologies, including proteomics, metabolomics, and nanotechnology, are emerging as companion tests to innovative medicines. In this Opinion, we present the rationale for promulgating an “Essential Diagnostics List.” Additionally, we explain the ways in which adopting a vision for “Health in All Policies” could link essential diagnostics with robust and timely societal outcomes such as sustainable development, human rights, gender parity, and alleviation of poverty. We do so in three ways. First, we propose the need for a new, “see through” taxonomy for knowledge-based innovation as we transition from the material industries (e.g., textiles, plastic, cement, glass) dominant in the 20th century to the anticipated knowledge industry of the 21st century. If knowledge is the currency of the present century, then it is sensible to adopt an approach that thoroughly examines scientific knowledge, starting with the production aims, methods, quality, distribution, access, and the ends it purports to serve. Second, we explain that this knowledge trajectory focus on innovation is crucial and applicable across all sectors, including public, private, or public–private partnerships, as it underscores the fact that scientific knowledge is a co-product of technology, human values, and social systems. By making the value systems embedded in scientific design and knowledge co-production transparent, we all stand to benefit from sustainable and transparent science. Third, we appeal to the global health community to consider the necessary qualities of good governance for 21st century organizations that will embark on developing essential diagnostics. These have importance not only for science and knowledge-based innovation, but also for the ways in which we can build open, healthy, and peaceful civil societies today and for future generations.

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2015 Journal Article K. R. Murthy, Rajagopalan, P., Pinto, S. M., Advani, J., Murthy, P. R., Goel, R., Subbannayya, Y., Balakrishnan, L., Dash, M., Anil, A. K., Dey, G., Chatterjee, A., Gowda, H., Chakravarti, S., Shankar, S., Sahasrabuddhe, N. A., Bipin G. Nair Dr., Somani, B. Lal, Keshava, P. T. S., and Pandey, A., “Proteomics of Human Aqueous Humor”, Omics: a journal of integrative biology, vol. 19, pp. 283–293, 2015.[Abstract]

The aqueous humor is a colorless, transparent fluid that fills the anterior chamber of the eye. It plays an important role in maintaining the intraocular pressure and providing nourishment to the lens and cornea. The constitution of the aqueous humor is controlled by the blood–aqueous barrier. Though this ocular fluid has been extensively studied, its role in ocular physiology is still not completely understood. In this study, aqueous humor samples were collected from 250 patients undergoing cataract surgery, subjected to multiple fractionation strategies and analyzed on a Fourier transform LTQ-Orbitrap Velos mass spectrometer. In all, we identified 763 proteins, of which 386 have been identified for the first time in this study. Sorbitol dehydrogenase (SORD), filensin (BFSP1), and phakinin (BFSP2) are some of the proteins that have not been previously reported in the aqueous humor. Gene Ontology analysis revealed 35% of the identified proteins to be extracellular, with a majority of them involved in cell communication and signal transduction. This study comprehensively reports 386 novel proteins that have important potential as biomarker candidates for future research into personalized medicine and diagnostics aimed towards improving visual health.

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2015 Journal Article J. Nambiar, G., K., S.R., S., S.N., G., R.S., L., and Bipin G. Nair Dr., “A Novel2-Alkoxy-3, 5-Dihydroxypyridine Mediated Regulation of Gelatinases”, International Journal of Pharma and Bio Sciences, vol. 6, pp. 779-788, 2015.
2015 Journal Article N. Mohammad, Singh, S. Vikram, Malvi, P., Chaube, B., Athavale, D., Vanuopadath, M., Nair, S. Sadasivan, Bipin G. Nair Dr., and Bhat, M. Kumar, “Strategy to enhance efficacy of doxorubicin in solid tumor cells by methyl-β-cyclodextrin: Involvement of p53 and Fas receptor ligand complex”, Scientific reports (Article number 11853), vol. 5, 2015.[Abstract]

Doxorubicin (DOX) is one of the preferred drugs for treating breast and liver cancers. However, its clinical application is limited due to severe side effects and the accompanying drug resistance. In this context, we investigated the effect on therapeutic efficacy of DOX by cholesterol depleting agent methyl-β-cyclodextrin (MCD), and explored the involvement of p53. MCD sensitizes MCF-7 and Hepa1-6 cells to DOX, Combination of MCD and marginal dose of DOX reduces the cell viability, and promoted apoptosis through induction of pro-apoptotic protein, Bax, activation of caspase-8 and caspase-7, down regulation of anti-apoptotic protein Bcl-2 and finally promoting PARP cleavage. Mechanistically, sensitization to DOX by MCD was due to the induction of FasR/FasL pathway through p53 activation. Furthermore, inhibition of p53 by pharmacological inhibitor pifithrin-α (PFT-α) or its specific siRNA attenuated p53 function and down-regulated FasR/FasL, thereby preventing cell death. Animal experiments were performed using C57BL/6J mouse isografted with Hepa1-6 cells. Tumor growth was retarded and survival increased in mice administered MCD together with DOX to as compared to either agent alone. Collectively, these results suggest that MCD enhances the sensitivity to DOX for which wild type p53 is an important determinant.

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2015 Journal Article K. Dhara, Ramachandran, Ta, Bipin G. Nair Dr., and T. G. Satheesh Babu, “Highly sensitive and wide-range nonenzymatic disposable glucose sensor based on a screen printed carbon electrode modified with reduced graphene oxide and Pd-CuO nanoparticles”, Microchimica Acta, 2015.[Abstract]

A nanocomposite consisting of reduced graphene oxide decorated with palladium-copper oxide nanoparticles (Pd-CuO/rGO) was synthesized by single-step chemical reduction. The morphology and crystal structure of the nanocomposite were characterized by field-emission scanning electron microscopy, high resolution transmission electron microscopy and X-ray diffraction analysis. A 3-electrode system was fabricated by screen printing technology and the Pd-CuO/rGO nanocomposite was dropcast on the carbon working electrode. The catalytic activity towards glucose in 0.2 M NaOH solutions was analyzed by linear sweep voltammetry and amperometry. The steady state current obtained at a constant potential of +0.6 V (vs. Ag/AgCl) showed the modified electrode to possess a wide analytical range (6 μM to 22 mM), a rather low limit of detection (30 nM), excellent sensitivity (3355 μA∙mM−1∙cm−2) and good selectivity over commonly interfering species and other sugars including fructose, sucrose and lactose. The sensor was successfully employed to the determination of glucose in blood serum. [Figure not available: see fulltext.] © 2015 Springer-Verlag Wien

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2015 Journal Article Sa Muzaffar, Bose, C., Banerji, A., Bipin G. Nair Dr., and Chattoo, B. Ba, “Anacardic acid induces apoptosis-like cell death in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae”, Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology, 2015.[Abstract]

<p>Anacardic acid (6-pentadecylsalicylic acid), extracted from cashew nut shell liquid, is a natural phenolic lipid well known for its strong antibacterial, antioxidant, and anticancer activities. Its effect has been well studied in bacterial and mammalian systems but remains largely unexplored in fungi. The present study identifies antifungal, cytotoxic, and antioxidant activities of anacardic acid in the rice blast fungus Magnaporthe oryzae. It was found that anacardic acid causes inhibition of conidial germination and mycelial growth in this ascomycetous fungus. Phosphatidylserine externalization, chromatin condensation, DNA degradation, and loss of mitochondrial membrane potential suggest that growth inhibition of fungus is mainly caused by apoptosis-like cell death. Broad-spectrum caspase inhibitor Z-VAD-FMK treatment indicated that anacardic acid induces caspase-independent apoptosis in M. oryzae. Expression of a predicted ortholog of apoptosis-inducing factor (AIF) was upregulated during the process of apoptosis, suggesting the possibility of mitochondria dependent apoptosis via activation of apoptosis-inducing factor. Anacardic acid treatment leads to decrease in reactive oxygen species rather than increase in reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation normally observed during apoptosis, confirming the antioxidant properties of anacardic acid as suggested by earlier reports. Our study also shows that anacardic acid renders the fungus highly sensitive to DNA damaging agents like ethyl methanesulfonate (EMS). Treatment of rice leaves with anacardic acid prevents M. oryzae from infecting the plant without affecting the leaf, suggesting that anacardic acid can be an effective antifungal agent. © 2015 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg</p>

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2015 Journal Article L. Dhevi N. Selvan, Sreenivasamurthy, S. K., Kumar, S., Yelamanchi, S. D., Madugundu, A. K., Anil, A. K., Renuse, S., Bipin G. Nair Dr., Gowda, H., Mathur, P. P., Satishchandra, P., Shankar, S. K., Mahadevan, A., and Prasad, T. S. Keshava, “Characterization of Host Response to Cryptococcus Neoformans Through Quantitative Proteomic Analysis of Cryptococcal Meningitis Co-infected with HIV”, Mol. BioSyst., vol. 11, pp. 2529-2540, 2015.[Abstract]

Cryptococcal meningitis is the most common opportunistic fungal infection causing morbidity and mortality (&gt;60%) in HIV-associated immunocompromised individuals caused by Cryptococcus neoformans. Molecular mechanisms of cryptococcal infection in brain have been studied using experimental animal models and cell lines. There are limited studies for the molecular understanding of cryptococcal meningitis in human brain. The proteins involved in the process of invasion and infection in human brain still remains obscure. To this end we carried out mass spectrometry-based quantitative proteomics of frontal lobe brain tissues from cryptococcal meningitis patients and controls to identify host proteins that are associated with the pathogenesis of cryptococcal meningitis. We identified 317 proteins to be differentially expressed ([greater-than-or-equal]2-fold) from a total of 3423 human proteins. We found proteins involved in immune response and signal transduction to be differentially expressed in response to cryptococcal infection in human brain. Immune response proteins including complement factors{,} major histocompatibility proteins{,} proteins previously known to be involved in fungal invasion to brain such as caveolin 1 and actin were identified to be differentially expressed in cryptococcal meningitis brain tissues co-infected with HIV. We also validated the expression status of 5 proteins using immunohistochemistry. Overexpression of major histocompatibility complexes{,} class I{,} B (HLA-B){,} actin alpha 2 smooth muscle aorta (ACTA2) and caveolin 1 (CAV1) and downregulation of peripheral myelin protein 2 (PMP2) and alpha crystallin B chain (CRYAB) in cryptococcal meningitis were confirmed by IHC-based validation experiments. This study provides the brain proteome profile of cryptococcal meningitis co-infected with HIV for a better understanding of the host response associated with the disease.

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2014 Journal Article J. Kurian Thomas, Kim, M. - S., Balakrishnan, L., Nanjappa, V., Raju, R., Marimuthu, A., Radhakrishnan, A., Muthusamy, B., Khan, A. Ahmad, Sakamuri, S., Bipin G. Nair Dr., Tankala, S. Gupta, Singal, M., Sirdeshmukh, R., Chatterjee, A., Prasad, T. S. Keshava, Maitra, A., Gowda, H., Hruban, R. H., and Pandey, A., “Pancreatic Cancer Database: An integrative resource for pancreatic cancer.”, Cancer biology & therapy, vol. 15, pp. 963-967, 2014.[Abstract]

Pancreatic cancer is the fourth leading cause of cancer-related death in the world. The etiology of pancreatic cancer is heterogeneous with a wide range of alterations that have already been reported at the level of the genome, transcriptome, and proteome. The past decade has witnessed a large number of experimental studies using high-throughput technology platforms to identify genes whose expression at the transcript or protein levels is altered in pancreatic cancer. Based on expression studies, a number of molecules have also been proposed as potential biomarkers for diagnosis and prognosis of this deadly cancer. Currently, there are no repositories which provide an integrative view of multiple Omics data sets from published research on pancreatic cancer. Here, we describe the development of a web-based resource, Pancreatic Cancer Database (, as a unified platform for pancreatic cancer research. PCD contains manually curated information pertaining to quantitative alterations in miRNA, mRNA, and proteins obtained from small-scale as well as high-throughput studies of pancreatic cancer tissues and cell lines. We believe that PCD will serve as an integrative platform for scientific community involved in pancreatic cancer research.

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2014 Journal Article S. Bab Dwivedi, Muthusamy, Bac, Kumar, Pa, Kim, M. - Sd, Nirujogi, R. Sac, Getnet, Dd, Ahiakonu, Pe, De, Gaf, Bipin G. Nair Dr., Gowda, Ha, Prasad, T. S. Kab c f, Kumar, Ng, Pandey, Aad h, and Okulate, Me, “Brain proteomics of anopheles gambiae”, OMICS A Journal of Integrative Biology, vol. 18, pp. 421-437, 2014.[Abstract]

Anopheles gambiae has a well-adapted system for host localization, feeding, and mating behavior, which are all governed by neuronal processes in the brain. However, there are no published reports characterizing the brain proteome to elucidate neuronal signaling mechanisms in the vector. To this end, a large-scale mapping of the brain proteome of An. gambiae was carried out using high resolution tandem mass spectrometry, revealing a repertoire of >1800 proteins, of which 15% could not be assigned any function. A large proportion of the identified proteins were predicted to be involved in diverse biological processes including metabolism, transport, protein synthesis, and olfaction. This study also led to the identification of 10 GPCR classes of proteins, which could govern sensory pathways in mosquitoes. Proteins involved in metabolic and neural processes, chromatin modeling, and synaptic vesicle transport associated with neuronal transmission were predominantly expressed in the brain. Proteogenomic analysis expanded our findings with the identification of 15 novel genes and 71 cases of gene refinements, a subset of which were validated by RT-PCR and sequencing. Overall, our study offers valuable insights into the brain physiology of the vector that could possibly open avenues for intervention strategies for malaria in the future. © Copyright 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014.

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2014 Journal Article Nab Hekim, Coşkun, Yc, Sinav, Ad, Abou-Zeid, A. He, Aǧirbaşli, Mf, Akintola, S. Og, Aynacioǧlu, Sh, Bayram, Mij, Bragazzi, N. Lk, Dandara, Cl, Dereli, Tim, Dove, E. Sn, Elbeyli, Lo, Endrenyi, Lp, Erciyas, Kq, Faris, Jr, Ferguson, L. Rst, Göǧüş, Fj, Güngör, Ku, Gürsoy, Mv, Gürsoy, U. Kv, Karaömerlioǧlu, M. Aw, Kickbusch, Ix, Kiliç, Ty, Kilinç, Mz, Kocagöz, Taa, Lin, Babac, Llerena, Aadae, Manolopoulos, V. Gaf, Bipin G. Nair Dr., Özkan, Bah, Pang, Tai, Şardaş, Saj, Srivastava, Sak, Toraman, Cal, Üstün, Kq, Warnich, Lam, Wonkam, Al, Yakicier, M. Can, Yaşar, Uao, and Özdemir, Vcag al ap, “Translating biotechnology to knowledge-based innovation, peace, and development? Deploy a science peace corps - An open letter to world leaders”, OMICS A Journal of Integrative Biology, vol. 18, pp. 415-420, 2014.[Abstract]

Scholarship knows no geographical boundaries. This science diplomacy and biotechnology journalism article introduces an original concept and policy petition to innovate the global translational science, a Science Peace Corps. Service at the new Corps could entail volunteer work for a minimum of 6 weeks, and up to a maximum of 2 years, for translational research in any region of the world to build capacity manifestly for development and peace, instead of the narrow bench-to-bedside model of life science translation. Topics for translational research are envisioned to include all fields of life sciences and medicine, as long as they are linked to potential or concrete endpoints in development, foreign policy, conflict management, post-crisis capacity building, and/or peace scholarship domains. As a new instrument in the global science and technology governance toolbox, a Science Peace Corps could work effectively, for example, towards elucidating the emerging concept of "one health" - encompassing human, environmental, plant, microbial, ecosystem, and planet health - thus serving as an innovative crosscutting pillar of 21st century integrative biology. An interdisciplinary program of this caliber for development would link 21st century life sciences to foreign policy and peace, in ways that can benefit many nations despite their ideological differences. We note that a Science Peace Corps is timely. The Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) of the United Nations released the Fifth Assessment Report on March 31, 2014. Worrisomely, the report underscores that no person or nation will remain untouched by the climate change, highlighting the shared pressing life sciences challenges for global society. To this end, we recall that President John F. Kennedy advocated for volunteer work that has enduring, transgenerational, and global impacts. This culminated in establishment of the Peace Corps in 1961. Earlier, President Abraham Lincoln aptly observed, "nearly all men can stand adversity, but if you want to test a man's character, give him power." We therefore petition President Barack Obama, other world leaders, and international development agencies in positions of power around the globe, to consider deploying a Science Peace Corps to cultivate the essential (and presently missing) ties among life sciences, foreign policy, development, and peace agendas. A Science Peace Corps requires support by a credible and independent intergovernmental organization or development agency for funding, and arbitration in the course of volunteer work when the global versus local (glocal) value-based priorities and human rights intersect in synergy or conflict. In all, Science Peace Corps is an invitation to a new pathway for competence in 21st century science that is locally productive and globally competitive. It can open up scientific institutions to broader considerations and broader inputs, and thus cultivate vital translational science in a world sorely in need of solidarity and sustainable responses to the challenges of 21st century science and society. © Copyright 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014.

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2014 Journal Article S. Renuse, Madugundu, A. K., Kumar, P., Bipin G. Nair Dr., Gowda, H., Prasad, T. S. Keshava, and Pandey, A., “Proteomic analysis and genome annotation of Pichia pastoris, a recombinant protein expression host”, PROTEOMICS, vol. 14, pp. 2769–2779, 2014.[Abstract]

Pichia pastoris is a widely used eukaryotic host for production of recombinant proteins. We performed a proteogenomic analysis using high resolution Fourier transform MS to characterize the proteome of the GS115 strain. Our analysis resulted in identification of 46 889 unique peptides mapping to 3914 unique protein groups, which corresponds to ∼80% of the predicted genes. In addition, our proteogenomic analysis led to the discovery of 64 novel genes and correction of 11 predicted gene models. The strategy used here demonstrates the utility of high resolution MS-derived peptide sequence data to cover near complete proteomes of organisms. Given the popularity of P. pastoris as a protein expression host, this proteome map should provide a list of contaminants derived from the host to assist in optimization of heterologous protein production. All MS data have been deposited in the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000627.

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2014 Journal Article K. R. Murthy, Goel, R., Subbannayya, Y., Jacob, H. K. C., Murthy, P. R., Manda, S. Srinivas, Patil, A. H., Sharma, R., Sahasrabuddhe, N. A., Parashar, A., Bipin G. Nair Dr., Krishna, V., Prasad, T. S. Keshava, Gowda, H., and Pandey, A., “Proteomic analysis of human vitreous humor”, Clinical Proteomics, vol. 11, 2014.[Abstract]

Background: The vitreous humor is a transparent, gelatinous mass whose main constituent is water. It plays an important role in providing metabolic nutrient requirements of the lens, coordinating eye growth and providing support to the retina. It is in close proximity to the retina and reflects many of the changes occurring in this tissue. The biochemical changes occurring in the vitreous could provide a better understanding about the pathophysiological processes that occur in vitreoretinopathy. In this study, we investigated the proteome of normal human vitreous humor using high resolution Fourier transform mass spectrometry.
Results: The vitreous humor was subjected to multiple fractionation techniques followed by LC-MS/MS analysis. We identified 1,205 proteins, 682 of which have not been described previously in the vitreous humor. Most proteins were localized to the extracellular space (24%), cytoplasm (20%) or plasma membrane (14%). Classification based on molecular function showed that 27% had catalytic activity, 10% structural activity, 10% binding activity, 4% cell and 4% transporter activity. Categorization for biological processes showed 28% participate in metabolism, 20% in cell communication and 13% in cell growth. The data have been deposited to the ProteomeXchange with identifier PXD000957.
Conclusion: This large catalog of vitreous proteins should facilitate biomedical research into pathological conditions of the eye including diabetic retinopathy, retinal detachment and cataract.

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2014 Journal Article S. Dr. Diwakar, Parasuram, H., Medini, Ca, Raman, R., Prema Nedungadi, Wiertelak, Ed, Srivastava, Se, Dr. Achuthan, K., and Bipin G. Nair Dr., “Complementing neurophysiology education for developing countries via cost-effective virtual labs: Case studies and classroom scenarios”, Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education, vol. 12, pp. A130-A139, 2014.[Abstract]

Classroom-level neuroscience experiments vary from detailed protocols involving chemical, physiological and imaging techniques to computer-based modeling. The application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is revolutionizing the current laboratory scenario in terms of active learning especially for distance education cases. Virtual web-based labs are an asset to educational institutions confronting economic issues in maintaining equipment, facilities and other conditions needed for good laboratory practice. To enhance education, we developed virtual laboratories in neuroscience and explored their first-level use in (Indian) University education in the context of developing countries. Besides using interactive animations and remotely-triggered experimental devices, a detailed mathematical simulator was implemented on a web-based software platform. In this study, we focused on the perceptions of technology adoption for a virtual neurophysiology laboratory as a new pedagogy tool for complementing college laboratory experience. The study analyses the effect of virtual labs on users assessing the relationship between cognitive, social and teaching presence. Combining feedback from learners and teachers, the study suggests enhanced motivation for students and improved teaching experience for instructors. © Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience.

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2013 Journal Article Tab Subbannayya, Balakrishnan, Lac, Sudarshan, Gc, Advani, Ja, Kumar, Sc, Mahmood, Rc, Bipin G. Nair Dr., Sirdeshmukh, Ra, Mukherjee, K. Kd, Umathe, S. Ne, Raju, Ra, and Prasad, T. Sab Keshava, “An integrated map of corticotropin-releasing hormone signaling pathway”, Journal of Cell Communication and Signaling, vol. 7, pp. 295-300, 2013.
2013 Journal Article Vab c Özdemir, Llerena, Ade, McKinnon, R. Af, Srivastava, Sg, Dove, E. Sch, Ferguson, L. Rij k, Masellis, Ml, Bipin G. Nair Dr., Gurwitz, Dn, and Warnich, Lo, “CPPM 2013 onward: Building a socio-technical GPS for global personalized medicine - A welcome to editors-in-chief Adrián LLerena (Spain) and Ross A. McKinnon (Australia)”, Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine, vol. 11, pp. 87-92, 2013.
2013 Journal Article A. R. Pai and Bipin G. Nair Dr., “Synthesis of Reduced Graphene Oxide Using Novel Exfoliation Technique and its Characterizations”, Journal of Nano-and electronic Physics, vol. 5, p. 02032 , 2013.[Abstract]

For processing of graphene based composite materials Graphene oxide is considered to be the main precursor. Though epitaxial growth and chemical vapor deposition techniques have been utilized to get monolayers of graphene, wet chemical process have been used for its large scale synthesis. For the extraction of graphene monolayer the chemical route relies on the weakening of the Van der Waals cohesive force upon the insertion of reactants in the inter layer space as a consequence sp2 lattice is partially degraded into a sp2-sp3 sheet that possesses a less π-π stacking stability. The method described here uses a novel chemical exfoliation technique. The graphite from the pencil lead is used as the precursor and it is treated with alcohol-ketone-surfactant mixture and mechanically and thermally agitated so as to get the golden brown colored suspension. The material was characterized by Fourier Transform Infra Red spectroscopy. The absence of 1570 cm – 1 peak clearly indicates the oxidation of C = C bonds. The SEM images confirmed the presence of the nanoplatelets of graphene oxide. The AFM analysis confirmed the sheet thickness of the graphene oxide sheets to be &lt; 5 nm. The sheet resistance of the sheets of thermally treated graphene oxide or reduced graphene oxide on Si wafer (p-type, 4-6 Ω/cm) was measured as 200-300 Ω/□. The Ellipsometric characterisations also matches with that of the thermally reduced graphene oxide films formed.&nbsp;

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2013 Journal Article D. Malhotra, Dr. Diwakar, S., Ozdemir, V., Bipin G. Nair Dr., and Srivastava, S., “BIOQUEST India: A Global Biotechnology Forum for Knowledge-Based Innovation and Sustainable Development”, Current Pharmacogenomics and Personalized Medicine (Formerly Current Pharmacogenomics), vol. 11, pp. 8–11, 2013.
Publication Type: Conference Proceedings
Year of Publication Publication Type Title
2015 Conference Proceedings S. Subhash, J Anupama, N., Sanalkumar, A., Krishna, D. L., Das, G. S., Ajith, S., Kumar, S. S., and Bipin G. Nair Dr., “Inhibitory effect of plant extracts on siderophores production by Klebsiella pneumoniae”, Proceedings of 27 Kerala Science Congress. p. 34, 2015.
2015 Conference Proceedings S. Dr. Diwakar, Chellaiah, P., Bipin G. Nair Dr., and Achuthan, K., “Theme Interception Sequence Learning: Deflecting Rubber-Hose Attacks Using Implicit Learning”, Proceedings of the 3rd International Conference on Frontiers of Intelligent Computing: Theory and Applications (FICTA) 2014, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol. 1. Springer International Publishing, Switzerland, pp. 495-502, 2015.[Abstract]

Existing cryptographic systems use strong passwords but several techniques are vulnerable to rubber-hose attacks, wherein the user is forced to reveal the secret key. This paper specifies a defence technique against rubber-hose attacks by taking advantage of image sequence-based theme selection, dependent on a user’s personal construct and active implicit learning. In this paper, an attempt to allow the human brain to generate the password via a computer task of arranging themed images through which the user learns a password without any conscious knowledge of the learned pattern. Although used in authentication, users cannot be coerced into revealing the secret key since the user has no direct knowledge on the choice of the learned secret. We also show that theme interception sequence learning tool works significantly well with mixed user age groups and can be used as a secondary layer of security where human user authentication remains a priority.

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2014 Conference Proceedings D. Nair, V, M., Bipin G. Nair Dr., G, J., and S, S., “Isolation and Characterisation of Lipopeptides from a Bacillus subtilis sp. Strain, a marime algal endophyte”, proceedings of the fourth International Seminar on "Sustainable Utilisation of Tropical Plant Biomass- Ayur informatics. pp. 89-91, 2014.
2013 Conference Proceedings S. Subhash, .A, A., .P, A., Nair, D., Poulouse, P., V.J, P., and Bipin G. Nair Dr., “Studies on the effect of fungal enzymes on Klebsiella Biofilm inhibition”, Amrita Bioquest 2013. Elsevier publications, Amrita School of Engineering, p. 489, 2013.
Publication Type: Conference Paper
Year of Publication Publication Type Title
2015 Conference Paper A. Vijayan, Medini, C., Palolithazhe, A., Muralidharan, B., Bipin G. Nair Dr., and Dr. Diwakar, S., “Modeling Pattern Abstraction in Cerebellum and Estimation of Optimal Storage Capacity”, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI-2015), Kochi, India, 2015.[Abstract]

Precise fine-tuning of motor movements has been known to be a vital function of cerebellum, which is critical for maintaining posture and balance. Purkinje cell (PC) plays a prominent role in this fine-tuning through association of inputs and output alongside learning through error correction. Several classical studies showed that PC follows perceptron like behavior, which can be used to develop cerebellum like neural circuits to address the association and learning. With respect to the input, the PC learns the motor movement through update of synaptic weights. In order to understand how cerebellar circuits associate spiking information during learning, we developed a spiking neural network using adaptive exponential integrate and fire neuron model (AdEx) based on cerebellar molecular layer perceptron-like architecture and estimated the maximal storage capacity at parallel fiber-PC synapse. In this study, we explored information storage in cerebellar microcircuits using this abstraction. Our simulations suggest that perceptron mimicking PC behavior was capable of learning the output through modification via finite precision algorithm. The study evaluates the pattern processing in cerebellar Purkinje neurons via a mathematical model estimating the storage capacity based on input patterns and indicates the role of sparse encoding of granular layer neurons in such circuits. © 2015 IEEE.

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2015 Conference Paper C. Medini, Vijayan, A., Zacharia, R. Maria, Rajagopal, L. Priya, Bipin G. Nair Dr., and Dr. Diwakar, S., “Spike Encoding for Pattern Recognition: Comparing Cerebellum Granular Layer Encoding and BSA algorithms”, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI-2015), Kochi, India, 2015.[Abstract]

Spiking neural encoding models allow classification of real world tasks to suit for brain-machine interfaces in addition to serving as internal models. We developed a new spike encoding model inspired from cerebellum granular layer and tested different classification techniques like SVM, Naïve Bayes, MLP for training spiking neural networks to perform pattern recognition tasks on encoded datasets. As a precursor to spiking network-based pattern recognition, in this study, real world datasets were encoded into spike trains. The objective of this study was to encode information from datasets into spiking neuron patterns that were relevant for spiking neural networks and for conventional machine learning algorithms. In this initial study, we present a new approach similar to cerebellum granular layer encoding and compared it with BSA encoding techniques. We have also compared the efficiency of the encoded dataset with different datasets and with standard machine learning algorithms. © 2015 IEEE.

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2015 Conference Paper N. Melethadathil, Chellaiah, P., Bipin G. Nair Dr., and Dr. Diwakar, S., “Classification and Clustering for Neuroinformatics: Assessing the efficacy on reverse-mapped NeuroNLP data using standard ML techniques”, in Proceedings of the Fourth International Conference on Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI-2015), Kochi, India, 2015.[Abstract]

NeuroinformaticsNatural Language Processing (NeuroNLP) relies on clustering and classification for information categorization of biologically relevant extraction targets and for interconnections to knowledge-related patterns in event and text mined datasets. The accuracy of machine learning algorithms depended on quality of text-mined data while efficacy relied on the context of the choice of techniques. Although developments of automated keyword extraction methods have made differences in the quality of data selection, the efficacy of the Natural Language Processing (NLP) methods using verified keywords remain a challenge. In this paper, we studied the role of text classification and document clustering algorithms on datasets, where features were obtained by mapping to manually verified MESH terms published by National Library of Medicine (NLM). In this study, NLP data classification involved comparing 8techniques and unsupervised learning was performed with 6 clustering algorithms. Most classification techniques except meta-based algorithms namely stacking and vote, allowed 90% or higher training accuracy. Test accuracy was high (=>95%) probably due to limited test dataset. Logistic Model Trees had 30-fold higher runtime compared to other classification algorithms including Naive Bayes, AdaBoost, Hoeffding Tree. Grouped error rate in clustering was 0-4%. Runtime-wise, clustering was faster than classification algorithms on MESH-mapped NLP data suggesting clustering methods as adequate towards Medline-related datasets and text-mining big data analytic systems. © 2015 IEEE.

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2015 Conference Paper H. Jayalekshmi, Victus, N. Mary G., Anoop, R., Sarath, T. M., Sali, S., .Harikrishnan, C., Kaushik, N., Kumar, G. B., and Bipin G. Nair Dr., “Combinatorial Effect of D-Amino Acids and Tetracycline Against P.aeruginosa Biofilm”, in Kerala Science congress , 2015.[Abstract]

Antimicrobial resistance is increasing worldwide and is of particular concern in gram-negative bacilli where there is a paucity of new and effective antimicrobial agents. Pseudomonas aeruginosa infections are associated with increased mortality and morbidity, especially in immunocompromised and burn patients respectively. The organism is capable of developing resistance to practically most classes of antibiotics and has always been considered a difficult target for antimicrobial chemotherapy because of the ability of bacteria to form biofilm. A biofilm is a structured consortium of bacteria, embedded in a self-produced polymer matrix consisting of polysaccharide, protein and DNA. Biofilm bacteria are a major concern in the treatment of infectious diseases. The objective of this work is to evaluate the efficacy of the combination of Tetracycline with different D-amino acids such as D-Leucine, D-Methionine, D-Tyrosine, and D-Tryptophan against P.aeruginosa biofilm. Sub-inhibitory concentrations of Tetracycline (0.5 MIC) along with different D-aminoacids were tested for its anti-biofilm activity. The validations of these results were done in in vitro wound dressing and ex vivo porcine skin models which shows that tetracycline-D-tryptophan combination could reduce biofilm formation. The studies using porcine skin explant confirms the efficacy of this combination for inhibiting the biofilm formation even in biological substances. The Hemocompatibility study shows no significant hemolysis by this combination. The results established the potential therapeutic application of D-aminoacids alone or in combination with tetracycline for treating biofilm associated clinical problems caused by P.aeruginosa. More »»
2015 Conference Paper J. H, Kumar, G., and Bipin G. Nair Dr., “Antibiofilm Activity of Biosurfactants from Bacterial Strains Isolated from Oil Contaminated Soil and Sewage.”, in International conference-NHBT 2015, 2015.[Abstract]

<p>Biosurfactants are surface active molecules produced by various organisms, which have beneficial in structural diversity, low toxicity and biodegradability. These properties makes these compounds for a variety of potential applications, including cosmetics– pharmaceutical formulations, agricultural, food industry, oil recovery and environment protection technology. Furthermore, the biological properties of biosurfactants have also augment interest of industrial application. Biosurfactants are grouped into three categories of origin: microbial derived, animal-derived and plant-derived biosurfactants. In this study it is possible to isolate two bacterial strains which produce biosurfactants, from two very cheaper resources - oil contaminated soil and sewage water. The bacterial strains were tested for the ability to produce biosurfactants and screened for biosurfactant activity by oil displacement method. The highest biosurfactant producing strains were selected and identified by microscopic appearance and biochemical activities. The extracted biosurfactant’s emulsification activities were compared with synthetic surfactants. Simultaneously the biosurfactant produced by these strains were tested for its antibiofilm activity against various pathogenic microbes and found to have significant antibiofilm activity. The beneficial property of&nbsp; biosurfactant production&nbsp; make the strains an efficient bioremediation tool for various environmental application and represent greater significance in future biomedical applications.</p>

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2015 Conference Paper J. Nambiar, Kumar, G. B., Nanjan, P., Banerji, A., and Bipin G. Nair Dr., “Regulation of Gelatinases by (I-3,II-3)-Biacacetin, a Novel Non-zinc Binding Inhibitor of MMP-2 and MMP-9”, in The XXXIX All India Cell Biology Conference, 2015.[Abstract]

Gelatinases (MMP-2 and MMP-9) play a significant role in cancer progression by cleaving the major components of the extracellular matrix thereby promoting the migration of tumor cells. Majority of the MMP inhibitors reported are zinc chelating compounds which bind to the catalytic zinc via hydroxamate, carboxylate, thiol or phosphonic acid moieties. The extensive homology between catalytic domains of the MMPs makes these effective zinc binding inhibitors non-selective and toxic. To overcome such non selective toxicity, novel non-zinc binding MMP inhibitors have been developed.(I-3,II-3)-Biflavones form a small group of dimeric flavonoids which have not been extensively studied due to their limited occurrence. Among several differently substituted biflavones having hydroxy, methoxy, furano and cinnamyl moieties,(I-3,II-3)-biacacetin showed maximum inhibition of gelatinases without interfering with the zinc in the catalytic site.This novel non-zinc binding interaction of (I-3,II-3)-biacacetin was further confirmed by treating the cells with ZnCl2 along with(I-3,II-3)-biacacetin and showing that the inhibition remained unaffected even in the presence of ZnCl2.(I-3,II-3)-biacacetin showed significant reduction in migration of highly metastatic fibrosarcoma cell line, HT1080. The mechanism of (I-3,II-3)-biacacetinmediated modulation of cell migration through inhibition of gelatinases was further established by treating the cells with phorbol myristate acetate (PMA)along with (I-3,II-3)-biacacetinand using the same conditioned media for the migration assay. (I-3,II-3)-biacacetininhibitedPMA-stimulated gelatinase activity as well as migration of HT1080 cells in a concentration-dependent manner.These results suggests the use of (I-3,II-3)-biacacetin as a novel template for design and synthesis of analogswith improved potency and selectivity.

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2015 Conference Paper D. G., Ashokan, L., Nambiar, J., Shaji, S. K., S, L., Kumar, G. B., and Bipin G. Nair Dr., “In Vitro Culture of Primary Cells from Cancer Patients- Screening for Potent MMP-9 Inhibitors”, in The XXXIX All India Cell Biology Conference , 2015.[Abstract]

Breast cancer is the most prevalent form of cancer among women worldwide. Established cancer cell lines generated over years have been used for studying the biology of breast cancer. These cell lines which have been passaged innumerable times creates genetic drift which makes the observations biologically less relevant. In vitro culture of primary cells from fresh surgical specimens provides a more accurate means for understanding the behavior of cancer cells and the adjacent normal cells. We have developed a simple and rapid method for isolating primary cultures from breast tumor and normal cells. Two different methods were employed for isolating primary cultures- one involving enzymatic digestion and the other using explant culture which is independent of enzymatic treatment and feeder cells. The primary cells obtained were further characterized by immunocytochemistry staining for Vimentin and Cytokeratin 18. The cells stained positive for Vimentin and negative for Cytokeratin 18 which indicated that they are of mesenchymal origin. Since gelatinases play a prominent role in promoting breast cancer metastasis, the primary cells were assessed for gelatinase activity. Our observations clearly show that the cancer cells had up-regulated gelatinases activity compared to the adjacent normal cells. These cells when treated with several natural products showed a dose-dependent inhibition of gelatinase activity. The results obtained were consistent in all the primary cell lines generated from different patient samples. These studies with the primary cell lines will therefore help in obtaining biological responses that more accurately mimics the tumor/cancer micro environment.

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2015 Conference Paper S. K. Shaji, Kumar, D. Sunil, G, D., Bipin G. Nair Dr., and Kumar, G. B., “MicroRNA-491 Functions to Down Regulate Gelatinase B and Inhibit Cell Migration in MDA-MB-231 Triple Negative Breast Cancer Cells”, in The XXXIX All India Cell Biology Conference , 2015.[Abstract]

Breast cancer is one of the most prevalent malignancies among women worldwide. There is no targeted therapy currently available for the treatment of patients with triple negative breast cancer (TNBC). Metastasis is the primary cause of death in cancer patients. Gelatinase B (MMP-9) plays a central role in invasion and metastasis of breast cancer cells. Here we show that, in triple negative MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line, hsa-mir-491 directly down regulate MMP-9 expression. Bioinformatics tool analysis showed that hsa-mir-491 may target MMP-9 and has binding sites in its 3’ UTR. Luciferase reporter assay confirms the direct regulation of MMP-9 by hsa-miR-491. miRNA over expressing stable cell lines were established by lentiviral transduction of MDA-MB-231 cells with hsa-mir-491 lenti-viral vector construct. qRT-PCR studies showed down regulation of MMP-9 mRNA in miRNA over expressing cells lines compared to the normal MDA-MB-231 cells. Even though the miRNA did not have any effect on cell cycle profiles, hsa-miR-491 over expressing stable cell line showed significantly low migratory potential in assays indicating the therapeutic potential of this micorRNA as a novel means of controlling breast cancer metastasis. Our results provide the first evidence for inhibition of MMP-9 by hsa-mir-491 in breast cancer cells.

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2015 Conference Paper A. Omanakuttan, Kumar, G. E. E. T. H. A., and Bipin G. Nair Dr., “Ecdysterone Mediates Wound Healing in a Nitric Oxide Dependent Manner in 3T3L1 Fibroblasts.”, in The XXXIX All India Cell Biology Conference , 2015.[Abstract]

Ecdysteroids are insect moulting hormones which are structurally different from mammalian steroids, but have been shown to have several beneficial effects in mammals. Ecdysterone is known to enhance wound healing in rabbits by a faster granulation tissue formation and epithelial cell proliferation. In this study, we focused our efforts on elucidating the molecular mechanism involved in Ecdysterone mediated wound healing. In order to achieve this, we employed an in vitro wound healing assay using 3T3L1 cells treated with Ecdysterone, isolated from Sesuvium portulacastrum. The assay demonstrated that Ecdysterone enhanced in vitro wound healing activity in a dose dependent manner. Further studies demonstrated that Ecdysterone enhanced cell proliferation and cell migration in a nitric oxide dependent manner. Additionally, fluorescence studies with DAF FM diacetate, a specific indicator for nitric oxide, demonstrated that Ecdysterone enhances nitric oxide (NO) production in a dose dependent manner through activation of Nitric oxide Synthase (NOS). These results demonstrate that Ecdysterone can enhance the wound healing process in a nitric oxide (NO) dependent manner

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2015 Conference Paper D. Sunil Kumar, Bose, C., Shaji, S. K., Banerji, A., Kumar, G. B., and Bipin G. Nair Dr., “Cocos Nucifera Shell Extract Down Regulates MMP-2, MMP-9 and Cell Migration in A375 Cells”, in The XXXIX All India Cell Biology Conference , 2015.[Abstract]

Melanoma is the least common but most fatal form of skin cancer. An essential step in melanoma cell migration, invasion, and metastasis is the degradation of basement membranes and extracellular matrix. Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) and their tissue inhibitors play a crucial role in these complex multistep processes. We investigated the effect of extract from coconut (Cocos nucifera) shell on human melanoma cell line A375. The coconut shell extract was fractionated and the bioactivity screening was carried out. The ethyl methyl ketone (EMK) extract, which was identified as being most potent was further purified to yield two main subfractions (F1 and F2). Comparative studies with gelatin zymography demonstrated that the ‘F1’ significantly down regulated the gelatinolytic activity of MMP-2 and MMP-9. Similarly ,the gene expression studies with ‘F1’ showed down regulation of MMP-2, MMP-9, VEGF and COX-2 all of which play key roles in metastasis, angiogenesis and tumor promoting inflammation. Further, studies confirmed that ‘F1’ inhibited migration and caused arrest at G2/M phase of the cell cycle. Susequently, the structural characterization by LC-MS/MS and NMR studies determined the active fraction, ‘F1’to be oxyresveratrol, a stilbenoid. Thus, we report for the first time the isolation and characterization of the compound, oxyresveratrol from coconut shell and also show its regulation of MMPs in human melanoma which suggests its therapeutic potential in cancer.

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2014 Conference Paper P. Aarathi, Jeethu, R., Bipin G. Nair Dr., and T. G. Satheesh Babu, “Design, Simulation and fabrication of Microfluidic Channels for Lab-on-a-Chip applications”, in International Conference on Biomaterials-2014 , Asian Polymers Association, New Delhi, 2014.
2014 Conference Paper T. S. Sethu Parvathy, Keerthy, D., Bipin G. Nair Dr., and T. G. Satheesh Babu, “Activated Screen Printed Electrode For Highly Sensitive Ascorbic Acid Sensing”, in International Conference on Biomaterials-2014, Asian Polymers Association, New Delhi, 2014.
2014 Conference Paper C. Medini, Vijayan, A., D'Angelo, E., Bipin G. Nair Dr., and Dr. Diwakar, S., “Computationally Efficient Bio-realistic Reconstructions of Cerebellar Neuron Spiking Patterns”, in Proceedings of the 2014 International Conference on Interdisciplinary Advances in Applied Computing, Amrita University, Coimbatore, India, 2014.[Abstract]

Simple spiking models have been known to replicate detailed mathematical models firing properties with reliable accuracy in spike timing. We modified the adaptive exponential integrate and fire mathematical model to reconstruct different cerebellar neuronal firing patterns. We were able to reconstruct the firing dynamics of various types of cerebellar neurons and validated with previously published experimental studies. To model the neurons, we exploited particle swarm optimization to fit the parameters. The study showcases the match of electroresponsiveness of the neuronal models to data from biological neurons. Results suggest that models are close reconstructions of the biological data since frequency and spike-timing closely matched known values and were similar to those in previously published detailed computationally intensive biophysical models. Such spiking models have a number of applications including design of large-scale circuit models in order to understand physiological dysfunction and for various computational advantages.

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2013 Conference Paper A. Vijayan, Singanamala, H., Bipin G. Nair Dr., Medini, C., Nutakki, C., and Dr. Diwakar, S., “Classification of robotic arm movement using SVM and Naïve Bayes classifiers”, in Proceedings of Third International Conference on Innovative Computing Technology (INTECH 2013), London, 2013.[Abstract]

Target-oriented approaches have been commonly used in robotics. In 3D space, movement of a robotic arm depends on the target position which can either follow a forward or inverse kinematics approach to reach the target. Predicting the movement of a robotic arm requires prior learning through methods such as transformation matrices or other machine learning techniques. In this paper, we built an online robotic arm to extract movement datasets and have used machine learning algorithms to predict robotic arm articulation. For efficient training, small training datasets were used for learning purpose. Classification is used as a scheme to replace prediction-correction approach and to test whether the method can function as a replacement of usual forward kinematics schemes or predictor-corrector methods in directing a remotely controlled robotic articulator. This study reports significant classification accuracy and efficiency on real and synthetic datasets generated by the device. The study also suggests linear SVM and Naïve Bayes algorithms as alternatives for computational intensive learning schemes while predicting articulator movement in laboratory environments.

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2013 Conference Paper C. Umesh, M., A. A., Stanley, J., Bipin G. Nair Dr., and T. G. Satheesh Babu, “Multiple Signal Amplification Platform for Immunosensing”, in Amrita Bioquest, Amrita University, Amritapuri Campus, 2013.
2013 Conference Paper T. Jyotsna, Dhivyalakshmi, J., Jyothi, S., Vidhusara, V., Bipin G. Nair Dr., and T. G. Satheesh Babu, “Fabrication of NiO-Pt Nanoparticles Modified Disposable Screen Printed Electrode for the Determination of Blood Glucose”, in Amrita Bioquest, Amrita University, Amritapuri Campus, 2013.
2013 Conference Paper S. R. Shrinidhi, Aarathi, P., T., R., Bipin G. Nair Dr., and T. G. Satheesh Babu, “Fabrication of Highly Sensitive and Selective Non-enzymatic Glucose Sensor”, in Amrita Bioquest, Amrita University, Amritapuri Campus, 2013.
2013 Conference Paper S. John, Ramyakrishnan, S., Vineeth, R. S., Bipin G. Nair Dr., and T. G. Satheesh Babu, “Development of a Non-enzymatic Glucose Biosensor using Copper Oxide Nanoparticle Modified TiO2 Nanotube Arrays”, in Amrita Bioquest, Amrita University, Amritapuri Campus,, 2013.
Publication Type: Patent
Year of Publication Publication Type Title
2014 Patent A. R. Pai and Bipin G. Nair Dr., “Method of preparing reduced graphene oxide”, U.S. Patent 626/CHE/20142014.
2013 Patent Bipin G. Nair Dr., Kumar, G., Eastman, C., and Schäfer, E., “Medical device keypad interface”, U.S. Patent US 29/420,8812013.[Abstract]

A portion of the disclosure of this patent document may contain material to which a claim for copyright and trademark is made. The copyright and trademark owner has no objection to the reproduction of the patent document or the patent disclosure, as it appears in the U.S. Patent Office records, but reserves all other copyright and trademark rights whatsoever.

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Publication Type: Book Chapter
Year of Publication Publication Type Title
2013 Book Chapter N. Ajayakumar, Schrenk, W., Bipin G. Nair Dr., and Sudarslal, S., “Mass Spectrometric Characterization of a Novel Antimicrobial Peptide Isolated from Clitoria Ternatea”, in Prospects in Bioscience: Addressing the Issues, A. Sabu and Augustine, A. Springer India, 2013, pp. 251-256.[Abstract]

Increasing microbial resistance to common antibiotics has become a serious threat in maintaining public health. Due to their distinctive features, antimicrobial peptides have become attractive molecules as novel antibiotics. Plants are constantly exposed to attack from a large range of pathogens, and under such conditions, they synthesize antimicrobial peptides as part of their innate defense mechanism. In an effort to identify potential antimicrobial peptides, we have isolated and characterized a novel eight-residue linear peptide from Clitoria ternatea, a perennial plant which belongs to Fabaceae family. Liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS) shows a UV-absorbing fraction at 230 nm with a measured molecular mass of 787.4 Da. The sequence of the peptide, QAANSVAK, was derived through de novo approach using tandem mass spectrometric (MS/MS) data obtained after collision-induced dissociation (CID). The sequence was further confirmed through chemical derivatization and proteolysis followed by data-dependent MS/MS analysis. Antimicrobial studies of the nearly homogenous peptide fraction after solid-phase extraction (SPE) show activity against Bacillus subtilis. The peptide bears no sequence similarity with any of the linear peptides isolated thus far from other organisms.

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Year Title
2014 Non- Enzymatic Glucose Sensor, U.S. Patent 14 / 019314, Publication Date, 06/03/ 2014.
2013 Medical device keypad interface, U.S. Patent US 29/420,881, Publication Date, 06/08/ 2013.
2012 Key pad for Medical Devices, Design No. 244105, The Patent Office, Government of India_ Certificate of Registration of Design, 2012.
2011 Dual Microcontroller Based Liquid Infusion System, U.S. Patent US 11/942,610, Publication Date, 11/10/2011.
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