Professor Nair is the Dean of Research to Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham (University), and also the Director of Amrita Centre for Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine (ACNSMM), Health Sciences Campus. Dr. Nair received his Bachelor of Technology degree in Metallurgical Engineering from the Indian Institute of Technology, Bombay, India, in 1976; Master of Science (1978) and Doctor of Engineering Science (1983) degrees in Materials Science and Engineering from Columbia University, New York, USA. He joined the faculty of the Mechanical Engineering Department of the University of Massachusetts, Amherst, MA, USA, in 1985 where he has since taught and conducted research in the area of composite materials. In 2006, he joined Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham (University), India. He heads initiatives in the applications of Nanotechnology to Medicine and Energy areas. Areas of research include nanomedicine, tissue engineering, surface modification of materials, and uses of nanomaterials in photovoltaics, supercapacitors and batteries.

In 1986, Dr. Nair received the Presidential Young Investigator Award from President Ronald Reagan for research in composite materials. He is a recipient of numerous awards from the National Science Foundation, USA, and from the industry in materials research. He received the MRSI Medal in Feb 2009 for outstanding contributions in the field of Materials Science. He is the recipient of the Prestigious National Research Award from the Government of India in 2011 for research in Nanosciences. Dr. Nair received the impressive C N R Rao India Nanosciences Award 2014 for outstanding contributions in Nanotechnology Research and Development in India. 


Publication Type: Journal Article
Year of Publication Publication Type Title
2016 Journal Article Aab Sasidharan, Swaroop, Sa, Chandran, Pab, Shantikumar V Nair, and Koyakutty, Ma, “Cellular and molecular mechanistic insight into the DNA-damaging potential of few-layer graphene in human primary endothelial cells”, Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine, vol. 12, pp. 1347-1355, 2016.[Abstract]

Despite graphene being proposed for a multitude of biomedical applications, there is a dearth in the fundamental cellular and molecular level understanding of how few-layer graphene (FLG) interacts with human primary cells. Herein, using human primary umbilical vein endothelial cells as model of vascular transport, we investigated the basic mechanism underlying the biological behavior of graphene. Mechanistic toxicity studies using a battery of cell based assays revealed an organized oxidative stress paradigm involving cytosolic reactive oxygen stress, mitochondrial superoxide generation, lipid peroxidation, glutathione oxidation, mitochondrial membrane depolarization, enhanced calcium efflux, all leading to cell death by apoptosis/necrosis. We further investigated the effect of graphene interactions using cDNA microarray analysis and identified potential adverse effects by down regulating key genes involved in DNA damage response and repair mechanisms. Single cell gel electrophoresis assay/Comet assay confirmed the DNA damaging potential of graphene towards human primary cells. © 2016 Elsevier Inc.

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2016 Journal Article S. Padmakumar, Joseph, J., Neppalli, M. H., Mathew, S. E., Shantikumar V Nair, S.A. Shankarappa, and Menon, D., “Electrospun Polymeric Core-sheath Yarns as Drug Eluting Surgical Sutures”, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol. 8, pp. 6925-6934, 2016.[Abstract]

Drug-coated sutures are widely used as delivery depots for antibiotics and anti-inflammatory drugs at surgical wound sites. Although drug-laden coating provides good localized drug concentration, variable loading efficiency and release kinetics limits its use. Alternatively, drug incorporation within suture matrices is hampered by the harsh fabrication conditions required for suture-strength enhancement. To circumvent these limitations, we fabricated mechanically robust electrospun core-sheath yarns as sutures, with a central poly-l-lactic acid core, and a drug-eluting poly-lactic-co-glycolic acid sheath. The electrospun sheath was incorporated with aceclofenac or insulin to demonstrate versatility of the suture in loading both chemical and biological class of drugs. Aceclofenac and insulin incorporated sutures exhibited 15% and 4% loading, and release for 10 and 7 days, respectively. Aceclofenac sutures demonstrated reduced epidermal hyperplasia and cellularity in skin-inflammation animal model, while insulin loaded sutures showed enhanced cellular migration in wound healing assay. In conclusion, we demonstrate an innovative strategy of producing mechanically strong, prolonged drug-release sutures loaded with different classes of drugs. © 2016 American Chemical Society. More »»
2016 Journal Article S. Mohapatra, Shantikumar V Nair, Santhanagopalan, D., and Alok Kumar Rai, “Nanoplate and mulberry-like porous shape of CuO as anode materials for secondary lithium ion battery”, Electrochimica Acta, vol. 206, pp. 217-225, 2016.[Abstract]

Facile hydrothermal synthesis of nanoplate and mulberry-like porous shape of CuO nanostructures was developed as anode materials for application in lithium ion batteries. The powder X-ray diffraction patterns of both the samples were indexed well to a pure monoclinic phase of CuO with no impurities. The CuO sample synthesized at different pH and reaction temperature exhibited nanoplate with average width and length of ∼150-300 nm and ∼300-700 nm and mulberry-like porous shape of CuO with average length of ∼300-400 nm. Electrochemical tests show that the lithium storage performances of both the nanoplate and mulberry-like samples are influenced more closely to its structural aspects than their morphology and size factors. The CuO nanoplate electrode exhibits high reversible charge capacity of 279.3 mAh g-1 at 1.0C after 70 cycles, and a capacity of 150.2 mAh g-1 even at high current rate of 4.0C during rate test, whereas the mulberry-like porous shape of CuO anode delivers only 131.4 mAh g-1 at 1.0C after 70 cycles and 121.7 mAh g-1 at 4.0C. It is believed that the nanoplate type architecture is very favorable to accommodate the volume expansion/contraction and aggregation of particles during the cyclic process. In contrast, the mulberry-like porous morphology could not preserve the integrity of the structure and completely disintegrated into nanoparticles during Li+ ion insertion/deinsertion due to the loose contact between the particles. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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2016 Journal Article P. Preetham, Mohapatra, S., Shantikumar V Nair, Santhanagopalan, D., and Alok Kumar Rai, “Ultrafast pyro-synthesis of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles within a full carbon network as a high-rate and cycle-stable anode material for lithium ion batteries”, RSC Advances, vol. 6, pp. 38064-38070, 2016.[Abstract]

NiFe2O4 nanoparticles fully anchored within a carbon network were prepared via a facile pyro-synthesis method without using any conventional carbon sources. The surface morphology was investigated using field-emission scanning electron microscopy, which confirmed the full anchoring of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles within a carbon network. The primary particle size of NiFe2O4 is in the range of 50-100 nm. The influence of the carbon network on the electrochemical performance of the NiFe2O4/C nanocomposite was investigated. The electrochemical results showed that the NiFe2O4/C anode delivered a reversible capacity of 381.8 mA h g-1 after 100 cycles at a constant current rate of 1.0C, and when the current rate is increased to a high current rate of 5.0C, a reversible capacity of 263.7 mA h g-1 is retained. The obtained charge capacity at high current rates is better than the reported values for NiFe2O4 nanoparticles. The enhanced electrochemical performance can be mainly ascribed to the high electrical conductivity of the electrode, the short diffusion path for Li+ ion transportation in the active material and synergistic effects between the NiFe2O4 nanoparticles and carbon network, which buffers the volume changes and prevents aggregation of NiFe2O4 nanoparticles during cycling. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2016.

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2016 Journal Article K. M. Sajesh, Kiran, K., Shantikumar V Nair, and Jayakumar, R., “Sequential layer-by-layer electrospinning of nano SrCO3/PRP loaded PHBV fibrous scaffold for bone tissue engineering”, Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 99, pp. 445-452, 2016.[Abstract]

Development of scaffolds with a blend of osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties is believed to be an effective approach towards bone regeneration. In our current research, a biodegradable Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [PHBV]/nano strontium carbonate/Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) composite scaffold was fabricated using sequential layer-by-layer electrospinning method. The synthesized nSrCO3 nanoparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and further the developed electrospun scaffolds were taken for in vitro assessments. Fiber diameter of the composite fibrous scaffold ranges from 400 to 800 nm. Cell proliferation analysis signifies the role of PRP in the developed scaffold. Osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs was confirmed by measuring the ALP concentration and mineral deposition on the scaffolds and demonstrates considerable enhancement on the composite scaffold. These preliminary results demonstrate that the developed electrospun biocomposite scaffold could serve as a better platform for bone regeneration. More »»
2016 Journal Article S. Deepthi, Gafoor, A. A. Abdul, Sivashanmugam, A., Shantikumar V Nair, and Jayakumar, R., “Nanostrontium ranelate incorporated injectable hydrogel enhanced matrix production supporting chondrogenesis: In vitro”, Journal of Materials Chemistry B, vol. 4, pp. 4092-4103, 2016.[Abstract]

An injectable hydrogel, with the advantage of adaptability to defect sites, patient compliance, controlled flowability and high water uptake capability, was explored as a prototype for cartilage tissue regeneration. Chitosan and fibrin are natural biomaterials that are biocompatible, biodegradable, resemble the ECM of the tissues and contain cell adhesion sites thereby providing a support for cell growth. In this study strontium ranelate, a drug recently studied to enhance cartilage regeneration, was encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles to provide sustained delivery of the drug content within the composite gel (chitosan/alginate/fibrin hydrogel). The developed nanocomposite gel was characterized using SEM, EDS and FTIR. The particle size of the strontium ranelate loaded chitosan nanoparticles was found to be 160 ± 30 nm. The encapsulation and loading efficiency values of strontium ranelate were found to be 40 ± 10% and 36 ± 2% respectively. Rheological data showed a storage modulus of 5.514 ± 0.102 kPa with thermal stability over the studied temperature range, and the gel properties could be restored within 10 s after the application of a high shear rate. The cytocompatibility and chondrogenic potential was analyzed using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to evaluate the applicability of the developed hydrogel for cartilage regeneration. hMSCs were found to be viable in the developed hydrogels and chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs was observed which was confirmed with enhanced proteoglycan and collagen synthesis. These results indicated that the developed injectable nanocomposite gel would be a suitable system for cartilage regeneration. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

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2015 Journal Article J. Joseph, Paravannoor, A., Shantikumar V Nair, Han, Z. J., Ostrikov, Kb, and Balakrishnan, A., “Supercapacitors based on camphor-derived meso/macroporous carbon sponge electrodes with ultrafast frequency response for ac line-filtering”, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 3, pp. 14105-14108, 2015.[Abstract]

Supercapacitor electrodes assembled from meso/macroporous camphor-derived carbon sponges show highly promising performance in ac line-filtering. The coin-type supercapacitor exhibits an ultrafast frequency response with a phase angle of -78°and a RC time constant of 319 μs at 120 Hz and may be a viable alternative to the presently dominant aluminium electrolytic capacitors. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

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2015 Journal Article J. Joseph, Shantikumar V Nair, and Menon, D., “Integrating Substrateless Electrospinning with Textile Technology for Creating Biodegradable Three-Dimensional Structures”, Nano letters, vol. 15, pp. 5420–5426, 2015.[Abstract]

The present study describes a unique way of integrating substrateless electrospinning process with textile technology. We developed a new collector design that provided a pressure-driven, localized cotton-wool structure in free space from which continuous high strength yarns were drawn. An advantage of this integration was that the textile could be drug/dye loaded and be developed into a core–sheath architecture with greater functionality. This method could produce potential nanotextiles for various biomedical applications.

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2015 Journal Article M. Janani, Srikrishnarka, P., Shantikumar V Nair, and Nair, A. S., “An in-depth review on the role of carbon nanostructures in dye-sensitized solar cells”, Journal of Materials Chemistry A, vol. 3, pp. 17914-17938, 2015.[Abstract]

Dye-sensitized solar cells (DSSCs) are considered to be promising, low-cost alternatives to amorphous silicon solar cells. The major components of a DSC include a metal oxide (usually TiO2), a dye, an electrolyte and a Pt- or carbon-deposited counter electrode. The photoexcited electrons from the dye diffuse through the TiO2 network and reach the counter electrode through an external circuit. However due to the trap-limited diffusion process, the electron collection efficiency is affected. Thus, for a hassle-free transport of electrons there is a need for additional electron transport channels. Further in order to reduce the overall cost of the device there is also a need for cheaper alternative counter electrodes in place of Pt. The 15th most abundant element in the earth's crust, carbon and its allotropes with their outstanding catalytic activity and electrical conductivity prove to be promising materials to overcome all these shortcomings and demerits. The review presented below summarizes the up-to-date research efforts on the role of carbon nanostructures in DSSCs, the various synthesis strategies adopted for their preparation and their photovoltaic performance. The review also includes a brief discussion about the role of carbon nanostructures in non-planar flexible wire-shaped DSSCs. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

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2015 Journal Article P. Pillai, Surenya, R. S., Shantikumar V Nair, and Lakshmanan, V. - K., “Cancer kinases and its novel inhibitors: Past, present and future challenges”, Current Drug Targets, vol. 16, pp. 1233-1245, 2015.[Abstract]

Cancer kinome is now well organized as an important target for a new class of cancer drugs. There are more than 500 members in the kinase family in which some of them are clinically analysed, while the rest are under investigation for potential therapeutic applications. Phosphorylation, major function of kinases is one of the most significant signal transduction mechanism in which intercellular signals regulate intracellular processes like ion transport, hormone responses and cellular proliferation. Any deregulation of kinase function may lead to tumor progression and other disorders such as immu-nological, neurological, metabolic including also infectious diseases. This led to the necessity in the development of kinase inhibitors as therapeutic agent. Herein we discuss about different types of kinases and their inhibitors in various types of cancers. This review portrays a broad overview of the origin of kinases, discovery, the characterization and mode of action of kinase inhibitors in cancer therapy. © 2015 Bentham Science Publishers.

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2015 Journal Article M. Nair, Nancy, D., Krishnan, A. G., Anjusree, G. S., Vadukumpully, S., and Shantikumar V Nair, “Graphene oxide nanoflakes incorporated gelatin–hydroxyapatite scaffolds enhance osteogenic differentiation of human mesenchymal stem cells”, Nanotechnology, vol. 26, p. 161001, 2015.[Abstract]

In this study, graphene oxide (GO) nanoflakes (0.5 and 1 wt%) were incorporated into a gelatin–hydroxyapatite (GHA) matrix through a freeze drying technique and its effect to enhance mechanical strength and osteogenic differentiation was studied. The GHA matrix with GO demonstrated less brittleness in comparison to GHA scaffolds. There was no significant difference in mechanical strength between GOGHA 0.5 and GOGHA 1.0 scaffolds. When the scaffolds were immersed in phosphate buffered saline (to mimic physiologic condition) for 60 days, around 50–60% of GO was released in sustained and linear manner and the concentration was within the toxicity limit as reported earlier. Further, GOGHA 0.5 scaffolds were continued for cell culture experiments, wherein the scaffold induced osteogenic differentiation of human adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells without providing supplements like dexamethasone, L-ascorbic acid and β glycerophosphate in the medium. The level of osteogenic differentiation of stem cells was comparable to those cultured on GHA scaffolds with osteogenic supplements. Thus biocompatible, biodegradable and porous GO reinforced gelatin–HA 3D scaffolds may serve as a suitable candidate in promoting bone regeneration in orthopaedics. More »»
2013 Journal Article T. R. Anuraj, N Rejinold, S., Biswas, R., Saroj, S., Shantikumar V Nair, Jayakumar, R., and Sabitha, M., “Curcumin Nanospheres by Surfactant Free Wet Milling Method (In Press)”, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, 2013.
Publication Type: Conference Proceedings
Year of Publication Publication Type Title
2016 Conference Proceedings M. Dangate, Munshi, A., Sampath, W. S., Boltalina, O., Strauss, S., C, S., and Shantikumar V Nair, “Investigation of Organic Small Molecules and Polymer Compounds for CdTe Back Contact”, 43rd IEEE Photovoltaic Specialists Conference. Portland, Oregon, USA, 2016.
Publication Type: Patent
Year of Publication Publication Type Title
2014 Patent M. Koyakutty, Retnakumari, A., and Shantikumar V Nair, “A core-shell nanostructure on the basis of proteins with corresponding therapeutic agents”, U.S. Patent PCT/IN2013/0001412014.[Abstract]

The present invention is related to the design and synthesis of nanomedicine comprising of a protein-protein composite or core-shell nanoparticle, where one protein carries one type of therapeutic molecule and second protein carries another type of therapeutic molecule. This nanomedicine formulation is intended for the treatment of diseases including cancer. To be specific, the current invention is designed to deliver two different types of therapeutic molecules in sequence or in combination using a single entity of nanoparticle formed by two different proteins that carry two therapeutic molecules separately

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2014 Patent M. Koyakutty, Ramachandran, R., Giridharan, L. M., and Shantikumar V Nair, “Photo - chemo composition on the basis of microcapsules with a core -shell structure”, U.S. Patent PCT/IN2013/0001442014.[Abstract]

The present invention is related to a core-shell photo-chemo nanomedicine aiding sequential or simultaneous delivery of a photosensitizer drug and at least one chemotherapeutic drug for combinatorial photodynamic therapy and chemotherapy of cancer. The nanomedicine core is made up of a biodegradable or biocompatible polymer and the shell is either by polymer or a protein aiding the following two configurations; (i) polymer core-polymer shell and (ii) polymer core-protein shell. The core-shell nanomedicine is made in such a way that, while the core is loaded with photosensitizer, the shell will be loaded with a chemo-drug or vice-versa. Along with improving drug solubility, stability, bioavailability and therapeutic efficiency, the core-shell nanomedicine platform aids sequential or simultaneous delivery of photosensitizer and chemo drugs to cancer type diseases and thereby facilitates the application of photodynamic reactive oxygen stress together with or followed by chemotherapy. In addition, this core-shell nanomedicine can be targeted specifically to the disease site by conjugating with targeting molecules such as antibodies, peptides, small molecules, vitamins, proteins, etc. This core-shell photo-chemo nanomedicine system is capable of excreting photodynamic reactive oxygen stress together with or followed by chemotherapy.

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2014 Patent M. Koyakutty, Ashokan, A., and Shantikumar V Nair, “The art, method, manner, process and system of a nano-biomineral for multi-modal contrast imaging and drug delivery”, U.S. Patent PCT/IN2013/0001432014.[Abstract]

The present invention relates to a nano-sized material that can provide contrast enhancement for multple imaging methods and also deliver therapeutic molecules such as nucleic acids or chemo drugs to diseased sites such as cancer. In particular, the present invention relates to nano-sized synthetic calcium phosphates and calcium apatite nanomaterials showing simultaneous contrast for at least any two of the medical imaging modalities including radio, raman-, near-infrared fluroscence-, magnetic resonance and x-ray-imaging.

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2014 Patent M. Koyakutty, Ashokan, A., Menon, D., and Shantikumar V Nair, “The art, method, manner, process and system of multifunctional nanobiomaterial for molecular imaging and drug- delivery”, U.S. Patent PCT/IN2013/0001422014.[Abstract]

The present invention relates to a nano-sized material that can provide contrast enhancement for multiple molecular imaging mthods and also deliver therapeutic nucleic acids or chemodrugs at a specific site of disease such as cancer. In particular, the present invention relates to a nanosized synthetic calcium apatite based materials showing contrast imaging for visible to near-infrared fluroscence, magnetic resonance imaging and x-ray imaging together with targeted delivery of nucleic acid drugs (DNA or RNA) to specific cancer types.

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2013 Patent R. Ramachandran, Koyakutty, M., and Shantikumar V Nair, “The art, method,manner process and system of fibrous bio-degradable polymeric wafers for the local delivery of therapeutic agents in combinations”, U.S. Patent PCT/IN2013/0001102013.[Abstract]

The present invention is related to flexible, fibrous, biocompatible and biodegradable polymeric wafer consisting of more than one polymeric fibres, each one loaded with different therapeutic agents having mutually exclusive synergistic activity. The wafer is capable of delivering the drugs locally in to the deceased site like tumor, inflammation, wound etc in a controlled and sustained fashion for enhanced therapeutic effect. The combination of drugs loaded in the wafer is chosen in such a way that the second or consecutive drugs will enhance or improve the therapeutic effect of the first drug

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2013 Patent M. Koyakutty, PARWATHY, C., Archana, P. R., and Shantikumar V Nair, “Polymer - polymer or polymer - protein core - shell nano medicine loaded with multiple drug molecules”, U.S. Patent PCT/IN2013/0001082013.[Abstract]

The present invention relates to the method of synthesis of core-shell nano medicine serving as a novel platform for the encapsulation of multiple therapeutic molecules enabling combinatorial therapy against diseases including cancer, inflammatory and auto-immune diseases and its associated manifestations. The core-shell nano-construct comprises of a biodegradable and biocompatible polymer as the core and another polymer or protein as the shell, aiding following constructs (i) polymer core-polymer shell and (ii) polymer core-protein shell. The core-shell nano medicine is developed in a manner to encapsulate at least one anti-cancer agent each in both the core and the shell

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2012 Patent K. R. V. Subramanian, Shantikumar V Nair, Lal, M., BALAKRISHNAN, A. V. I. N. A. S. H., and Sivakumar, N., “The method, Manner, Process and System of Preparation of Super capacitor or Battery Anodes using novel activated Carbon Graphene or Activated Carbon-Graphite Composites by Electrophoretic Co-deposition”, U.S. Patent 3428/CHE/20122012.
2011 Patent M. Sabitha, Jayakumar, R., Shantikumar V Nair, Amrita, N., N Rejinold, S., and Lakshmanan, V. Kumar, “The art, method, manner, process and system of preparation of curcumin loaded chitin nanogels for skin penetration”, U.S. Patent 2353/CHE/2011 A2011.[Abstract]

A method for the preparation of chitin nanogel loaded with curcumin without using any organic solvents or surfactants which show deep skin penetration and increased bioavailability of curcumin at sites of cancer with low pH.

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2011 Patent Shantikumar V Nair, Jayakumar, R., Lakshmanan, V. - K., Kumar, P. T. Sudhess, Snima, K. S., and Ramya, C., “THE ART, METHOD, MANNER, PROCESS AND SYSTEM OF PREPARATION OF PROPOLIS NANOPARTICLES FOR ANTI-CANCEROUS AND ANTIBACTERIAL APPLICATIONS”, U.S. Patent 907/CHE/20112011.
2011 Patent M. Koyakutty, Retnakumari, A., and Shantikumar V Nair, “THE ART, METHOD, MANNER, PROCESS AND SYSTEM OF PROTEIN-SORAFENIB NANOMEDICINE”, U.S. Patent 3455/CHE/20112011.
2011 Patent D. Menon, Chennazhi, K., Mohan, C. C., R, S. P., and Shantikumar V Nair, “THE ART, METHOD AND MANNER OF TITANIUM-BASED CARDIOVASCULAR STENTS WITH NANOSTRUCTURED SURFACES”, U.S. Patent 2355/CHE/20112011.
2010 Patent Shantikumar V Nair, “The Art, Method, Manner, Process and System of Photo Voltaic Panel Design using Vertically Aligned Panels for improved efficiency”, U.S. Patent 2446/CHE/2010 2010.
2010 Patent Shantikumar V Nair and Lekha, P., “The Art, Method, Manner, Process and Design of a double-side illumination photovoltaic cell and method for making the same”, U.S. Patent 2447/CHE/20102010.
2010 Patent R. Jayakumar, Manzoor, K., Shantikumar V Nair, Lakshmanan, V. K., Kumar, P. T. Sudheesh, and Abhilash, S., “THE ART, MANNER, METHOD AND PROCESS OF PREPARATION OF CHITOSAN SPONGE CONTAINING THE HERB COLEUS PLECTRANTBUS AS A WOUND DRESSING”, U.S. Patent 3012/CHE/20102010.
2010 Patent R. Jayakumar, Manzoor, K., Shantikumar V Nair, Lakshmanan, V. K., Kumar, P. T. Sudheesh, and Abhilash, S., “The Art, Method, Manner, Process and System of Chitosan hydrogel / Nano Zinc Oxide Membranes for Wound Dressing Applications”, U.S. Patent 1025/CHE/20102010.
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