Qualification: 
M.E
r_sakthivel@cb.amrita.edu

Sakthivel R. currently serves as Assistant Professor , at the department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Coimbatore Campus. 

Dr.Sakthivel R received his Ph.D. in Mechanical Engineering from Government College of Technology, Coimbatore under the affiliation of Anna University, Chennai. His area of interest includes Biomass energy conversion technologies, Internal Combustion Engines, Combustion and Emission analysis, Alternative fuels from third generation feedstock and Fuel stability analysis. He joined Amrita School of Engineering at June 2018 and currently working as Assistant Professor. Dr.Sakthivel has published 12 research articles in high impact Scopus indexed journals.

Research Expertise

  • Biomass Energy Conversion Technology
  • Fuel Stability Analysis
  • Combustion Simulation and
  • Emission Reduction Strategies

Reviewer in Journals/Conferences

  • Clean Technologies and Environmental Policy -SPRINGER Publication
  • International Journal of Vehicle Noise and Vibration – INDERSCIENCE
  • Applied Energy – ELSEVIER Publication
  • Heliyon - ELSEVIER Publication
  • Waste and Biomass Valorization - SPRINGER Publication
  • Energy and Environment - SAGE Publication
  • BioResources – NC State University Publication
  • International Conference on Robotics and Smart Manufacturing (RosMa2018)- IIITDM, Kancheepuram

Publications

Publication Type: Book Chapter

Year of Publication Title

2020

Sakthivel R., T. Mohanraj, S., J. John Marsh, and P., B., “Emission Aspects of Biomass-Based Advanced Second Generation Bio-Fuels in IC Engines”, in Recent Technologies for Enhancing Performance and Reducing Emissions in Diesel Engines, 2020.[Abstract]


Rapid industrialization and growth in population in urban regions augment the pollution levels from transportation sectors, especially from diesel fleets. A wide array of research activities were carried out to satisfy the energy needs as well as reduce the emission levels, which poses a big challenge to the research community. In this situation, biomass-derived fuels provide a ray of hope to the research community to address the emission problem by adapting closed carbon cycle at low cost. This chapter gives an overview to the readers about the present energy scenario, biomass-based fuel, upgradation techniques for biomass fuel, and engine adaptability of biomass-based fuels. This chapter provides a clear glimpse of biomass energy, one of the potential energy resources in the near future.

More »»

Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Title

2018

Sakthivel R., Ramesh K, R. Purnachandran, and P. Mohamed Shameer, “A review on the properties, performance and emission aspects of the third generation biodiesels”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 82, pp. 2970 - 2992, 2018.[Abstract]


In the effect of robust industrialization and rapid augmentation of a number of fleets, there has been a huge rise in the fossil fuel consumption. Tremendous increase in global warming threatens the ecological balance of the earth. Based on the recent sorts of hardship about the fuel, researchers are profoundly pondered over the field of renewability, environmentally friendly and economically doable. In recent decades biodiesel fuel becomes the center of attraction among researchers since it is renewable, bio degradable, non-noxious, eco-friendly and sustainable. This review paper highlights and reviews the properties of prosperous variety of the biodiesel fuels derived from non-edible feedstocks which are termed as third generation biodiesel and its effects on the performance and emissions of the diesel engines. It was observed that the physicochemical properties of the biodiesel differ based on the types of feedstocks and also have a considerable effect on the potential performance of engine and dynamic characteristics of emission level. Also, the usage of biodiesel commonly leads to a reduction in noxious pollutants like carbon monoxide, unburnt hydrocarbon and particulate matter with an obvious increase in fuel consumption and NOx emission. This review provides a prospective strategy for the researchers for enhancing the engine performance and emission characteristics by using the third generation biofuels and its blends with the productive marvelous outcomes.

More »»

2018

Sakthivel R. and Ramesh K, “Analytical characterization of products obtained from slow pyrolysis of Calophyllum inophyllum seed cake: study on performance and emission characteristics of direct injection diesel engine fuelled with bio-oil blends”, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 25, no. 10, pp. 9523–9538, 2018.[Abstract]


This paper aims to analyse the characteristics and properties of the fractions obtained from slow pyrolysis of non-edible seed cake of Calophyllum inophyllum (CI). The gas, bio-oil and biochar obtained from the pyrolysis carried out at 500 °C in a fixed bed batch type reactor at a heating rate of 30 °C/min were characterized by various analytical techniques. Owing to the high volatile content of CI biomass (72.61{%}), it was selected as the raw material in this present investigation. GC-MS and FT-IR analysis of bio-oil showed the presence of higher amount of oxygenated compounds, phenol derivatives, esters, acid and furans. The physicochemical properties of the bio-oil were tested as per ASTM norms which imply that bio-oil is a highly viscous liquid with lower heating value as compared to that of diesel fuel. The chemical composition of evolved gas was analysed by using GC testing which revealed the presence of combustible components. The FT-IR characterization of biochar showed the presence of aliphatic and aromatic hydrocarbons whereas the elevated amount of carbon in biochar indicates its potential to be used as solid fuel. The performance and emission characteristics of CI engine were assessed with different CI bio-oil blends and compared with baseline diesel fuel. The results showed that addition of bio-oil leads to decreased brake thermal efficiency and increased brake specific energy consumption. Meanwhile, increase in blend ratio reduces harmful pollutants such as oxides of nitrogen and smoke in the exhaust. From the engine testing, it is suggested to employ 20{%} of CI bio-oil blends in CI engine to obtain better operation.

More »»

2018

Sakthivel R., Ramesh K, Mohamed Shameer P, and Purnachandran R, “A Complete analytical characterization of products obtained from pyrolysis of wood barks of Calophylluminophyllum”, Waste and Biomass valorization, pp. 1-15, 2018.[Abstract]


This research article aims to analyze the properties and characteristics of the products obtained from slow pyrolysis of wood barks of matured Calophyllum inophyllum (CI) tree. The bio-oil, gas and biochar obtained from the slow pyrolysis carried out at 550 °C in a fixed bed batch type reactor at a heating rate of 30 °C min−1 were characterized by different analytical techniques. Owing to the lofty volatile content of CI biomass (72.61%), it was chosen as the raw material in this current experimental investigation. FT-IR and GC–MS results of bio-oil showed the existence of elevated amount phenol derivatives, oxygenated compounds, acids, esters and furans. The physicochemical properties of the bio-oil sample were tested in accordance with ASTM standards which clearly showed that bio-oil is a highly viscous liquid with lower heating value as compared to that of diesel fuel. The chemical composition of pyrolytic gas was analyzed by using Gas Chromatography which revealed the presence of combustible organic components. The FT-IR results of biochar showed the presence of aromatic and aliphatic hydrocarbons whereas the increased amount of carbon in biochar reveals its potential to be used as solid fuel for commercial purposes.

More »»

2018

P. Ramakrishnan, Ramesh K, Sakthivel R., and Mohamed Shameer Peer, “Assessment of n-pentanol/Calophyllum inophyllum/diesel blends on the performance, emission, and combustion characteristics of a constant-speed variable compression ratio direct injection diesel engine.”, Environmental science and pollution research international, vol. 25 , no. 14, pp. 13731-13744, 2018.[Abstract]


Alcohol is used as an additive for a long time with the petroleum-based fuels. In this study, the higher alcohol, n-pentanol, was used as an additive to Calophyllum inophyllum (CI) biodiesel/diesel blends at 10, 15, and 20% by volume. In all blends, the ratio of CI was maintained at 20% by volume. The engine characteristics of the pentanol fuel blends were compared with the diesel and CI20 (Calophyllum inophyllum 20% and diesel 80%) biodiesel blend. The nitrogen oxide (NO) emission of the pentanol fuel blends showed an increased value than CI20 and neat diesel fuel. The carbon dioxide (CO2) also increased with increase in pentanol addition with the fuel blends than CI20 fuel blend and diesel. The carbon monoxide (CO) and hydrocarbon (HC) emissions were decreased with increase in pentanol proportion in the blend than the CI20 fuel and diesel. The smoke emission was reduced and the combustion characteristics of the engine were also improved by using pentanol blended fuels. From this investigation, it is suggested that 20% pentanol addition with the biodiesel/diesel fuel is suitable for improved performance and combustion characteristics of a diesel engine without any engine modifications, whereas CO2 and NO emissions increased with addition of pentanol due to effective combustion.

More »»

2018

Sakthivel R., Ramesh K, P. Mohamed Shameer, and R. Purnachandran, “Experimental investigation on improvement of storage stability of bio-oil derived from intermediate pyrolysis of Calophyllum inophyllum seed cake”, Journal of the Energy Institute, 2018.[Abstract]


Due to the unstable nature of bio-oil, it becomes mandatory to analyze the changes in physical and chemical properties of the bio-oil during storage to appreciate its chemical instability, for developing stabilization strategies. The present study aims to investigate the oxidative and thermal stability of bio-oil extracted from pyrolyzing Calophyllum inophyllum (CI) deoiled seed cake in a fixed bed reactor at 500 °C under the constant heating rate of 30 °C/min. Each stability analysis method involve an accelerated aging procedure based on standards established by ASTM (D5304 and E2009) and European standard (EN 14112). Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry were employed to analytically characterize the un-aged and aged bio-oil samples. The results clearly depict that stabilizing Calophyllum inophyllum bio-oil with 10% (w/w) methanol improved its stability than that of the crude sample. Addition of methanol reduced the change in viscosity of bio-oil by 38.55% during accelerated aging process. The oxidation stability index of bio-oil stabilized with methanol was found to be 3.97 h which is in accordance with ASTM D6751. FT-IR and GC-MS results showed an increase in the relative concentration of C-O (carboxylic acids, ethers and esters) and C=O (carbonyl) functional groups in aged bio-oil samples.

More »»

2018

Sakthivel R. and Ramesh K, “Studies on the effects of storage stability of bio-oil obtained from pyrolysis of Calophyllum inophyllum deoiled seed cake on the performance and emission characteristics of a direct-injection diesel engine”, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, vol. 25, no. 18, pp. 17749–17767, 2018.[Abstract]


The highly unbalanced nature of bio-oil composition poses a serious threat in terms of storage and utilization of bio-oil as a viable fuel in engines. So it becomes inevitable to study the variations in physicochemical properties of the bio-oil during storage to value its chemical instability, for designing stabilization methodologies. The present study aims to investigate the effects of storage stability of bio-oil extracted from pyrolyzing Calophyllum inophyllum (CI) deoiled seed cake on the engine operating characteristics. The bio-oil is produced in a fixed bed reactor at 500 °C under the constant heating rate of 30 °C/min. All the stability analysis methods involve an accelerated aging procedure based on standards established by ASTM (D5304 and E2009) and European standard (EN 14112). Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was employed to analytically characterize the unaged and aged bio-oil samples. The results clearly depict that stabilizing Calophyllum inophyllum bio-oil with 10{%} (w/w) methanol improved its stability than that of the unstabilized sample thereby reducing the aging rate of bio-oil to 0.04 and 0.13 cst/h for thermal and oxidative aging respectively. Engine testing of the bio-oil sample revealed that aged bio-oil samples deteriorated engine performance and increased emission levels at the exhaust. The oxidatively aged sample showed the lowest BTE (24.41{%}), the highest BSEC (20.14 MJ/kWh), CO (1.51{%}), HC (132 ppm), NOx (1098 ppm) and smoke opacity (34.8{%}).

More »»

2018

Ramesh K, Baranitharan P, and Sakthivel R., “Characterization of pyrolysis bio-oil derived from intermediate pyrolysis of Aegle marmelos de-oiled cake: study on performance and emission characteristics of C.I. engine fueled with Aegle marmelos pyrolysis oil-blends”, Environmental Science and Pollution Research, 2018.[Abstract]


The present research focuses on the analyzing the characteristics of bio-oil derived from intermediate pyrolysis of Aegle marmelos (AM) seed cake and its suitability for C.I. engine adaptation. Owing to the high volatile matter content of 73.69%, Aegle marmelos biomass was selected as the feedstock for this research. The intermediate pyrolysis was carried out at 600 °C in a 2-kg fixed bed type pyrolysis reactor at a heating rate of 10 °C/min and the obtained bio-oil was characterized by different analytical methods. As per American Society for Testing and Materials (ASTM) standards, physicochemical properties of the bio-oil were tested and it was observed that bio-oil is a highly viscous fluid with low calorific value. Analysis of bio-oil through FT-IR and GC-MS examination confirmed the presence of phenol, esters, alkyl, and oxygenated compounds. The performance and emission testing of direct injection diesel engine were conducted with various bio-oil blends and the results were compared with baseline diesel fuel. The experimental results showed that the addition of bio-oil decreased BTE (%) while increasing the BSEC (MJ/kW-h). At the same time, increasing the bio-oil ratio with diesel decreases dangerous emissions such as carbon monoxide and oxides of nitrogen emissions in the engine exhaust. According to engine test result, it was suggested that up to 20% of AM bio-oil (F20) can be employed as engine fuel for better engine operating characteristics.

More »»

2017

Mohamed Shameer Peer, Ramesh K, Sakthivel R., and Purnachandran Ramakrishnan, “Experimental evaluation on oxidation stability of biodiesel/diesel blends with alcohol addition by rancimat instrument and FTIR spectroscopy”, Journal of Mechanical Science and Technology, vol. 31, no. 1, pp. 455–463, 2017.[Abstract]


Use of alcohols blended with biodiesel as alternative fuel in diesel engine is an attractive solution for depletion and demand of fossil fuels in transportation and industrial applications. Calophyllum Inophyllum is a higher oil yielding species with high heating value and notably non-edible oil. One of the most important criteria used for assessing the quality of biodiesel blended fuel is `storage oxidation stability'. Deprived oxidation stability is the important technical obstacle associated with the biodiesel commercialization. This study investigated the oxidation stability of biodiesel blends at 100 {%} (B100) and 20 {%} (B20) volume concentrations with diesel through induction time determined by Rancimat instrument. Effects of pentanol addition with B20 biodiesel at 10 {%} (P10) and 15 {%} (P15) volume concentrations are also analyzed. FTIR spectroscopy characterizes the oxidation variability of all test fuels. It can be concluded that the biodiesel (B100) shows good oxidation stability (I.P = 8.47 h). Addition of pentanol (10 {%}) enhances the storage ability by 44.57 {%} than B20, whereas further addition of pentanol (15 {%}) declines by 19.48 {%} when compared to P10. More concentration of pentanol weakens the hydrophilic and hydrophobic clusters formed between pentanol/diesel/biodiesel compounds which have been characterized using infra red spectroscopic analysis.

More »»

2017

Sakthivel R. and Ramesh K, “Influence of temperature on yield, composition and properties of the sub-fractions derived from slow pyrolysis of Calophyllum inophyllum de-oiled cake”, Journal of Analytical and Applied Pyrolysis, vol. 127, pp. 159 - 169, 2017.[Abstract]


This study aims to investigate the effects of temperature on the yield and properties of the subfractions derived from the pyrolysis of seed cakes of Calophyllum inophyllum. The seed cake of Calophyllum inophyllum, a large evergreen tree found in southern coastal belts of India, was Pyrolysed in three different temperatures of 450°C, 500°C and 550°C in a fixed bed batch type reactor at a constant heating rate of 30°C/minute and average particle size of 1.44mm. The sub fractions were characterized by analytical techniques like FTIR, GC–MS and GC along with physicochemical characterization using ASTM D7544 standard. The highest yield of bio-oil was observed in the pyrolysis temperature of 500°C above which the gas yield increases due to secondary cracking of volatiles. Major changes in FTIR spectra and peak area of GC–MS were observed for the products derived in three different temperature conditions. Proximate and ultimate analysis showed the significant changes in the composition of char obtained at various temperatures. It was observed that H/C and O/C ratio of biochar decreased with increase in operating temperature. Among the physicochemical of bio-oil, kinematic viscosity decreased by 21.32% as the pyrolysis temperature was increased from 450°C to 550°C whereas water content increased by 19.73% in the same temperature range. Meanwhile, other properties like calorific value, density and cetane number showed minor variations for the bio-oil obtained at dissimilar temperatures. The results proved that the pyrolysis temperature affects the properties of the products in a wide range.

More »»

2016

P. Mohamed Shameer, Ramesh K, Sakthivel R., and R. Purnachandran, “Effects of fuel injection parameters on emission characteristics of diesel engines operating on various biodiesel: A review”, Renewable and Sustainable Energy Reviews, vol. 67, pp. 1267 - 1281, 2016.[Abstract]


Many researches have been carried out towards the reduction in noxious emissions from diesel engines. This paper reviews the studies on the outcomes of operating parameters discrepancy on the engine emission issues carried out by various authors in different diesel engines fuelled with biodiesel from different feedstocks. The main goal of this paper is to enlighten the momentous of injection parameters like injection timing and injection pressure on the engine emission characteristics. This paper touches upon the advancement and retardation methods of fuel injection timing and injection pressure to inspect the engine emission indicators such as carbon monoxide, hydrocarbon, oxides of nitrogen, smoke, particulate matter and carbon dioxide contents. Comparative evaluation has been conversed accompanied by apropos causes for the deviation of emission characteristics.

More »»

2015

Sakthivel R. and Ramesh K, “Experimental investigation on the effects of diesel and its blends on the performance and emission characteristics of a DI-diesel engine”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, vol. 10, pp. 340-344, 2015.

Publication Type: Conference Paper

Year of Publication Title

2015

Sakthivel R. and Ramesh K, “Experimental investigation on the effects of diesel and its blends on the performance and emission characteristics of a di-diesel engine”, in National conference, Frontiers in Mechanical, Automobile, Civil and Electrical Sciences, Tamilnadu Engineering College, Coimbatore , 2015.

2015

Sakthivel R. and Ramesh K, “Effects of biodiesel and its blends with diesel on the performance and emission characteristics of a DI-Diesel Engine”, in International conference, CAASR-Innovative Engineering and Technologies (ICIET-2015), Bangkok, Thailand , 2015.

Faculty Research Interest: