Dr. Raghu Raman is Chairman for Amrita School of Business at Coimbatore. His main research focus is in the areas of Diffusion of ICT Innovations in socio-technical systems, eGovernance, Big Data Analytics in Education and Health, Social Network Analysis and Virtual Interactive learning environments.

Dr. Raman established the Center for Research in Advanced Technologies for Education (CREATE), an affordable and accessible educational technology initiative pioneered by Amrita, with over $4.6m in research funding and over 45 publications. As an Entrepreneur-in-Residence at NEC Research Labs, he raised over $16.5m in VC funding for an Intelligent Video surveillance startup. As Executive Director at Informix/IBM, he provided leadership for product development group in the area of Massively Parallel Database systems.

For over five years, as CEO of Amrita Technologies, a high technology healthcare start up, Dr. Raman provided leadership that lead to a patented and CCHIT certified Electronic Medical Record (EMR) system with a global customer base.


  • 2014 Ph.D in Management, Amrita School of Business, Amrita University
  • 2003 MBA, Haas School of Business, University of California, Berkeley.
  • 1989 Masters in Computer Applications, Jawaharlal Nehru University, India
  • 1986 Bachelors degree in Statistics (Honours)University of Delhi, India (Recipient of President of India Gold Medal, 1986)


2002 - 2005 Entrepreneur-in-Residence, NEC Research Labs, USA

  • Intelligent Video Surveillance system using Machine vision algorithms and Neural Network for homeland security
  • Raised over $13m venture capital and eventually spun off a new venture

2000 - 2002 Vice President of Engineering, Promptu Systems, USA

  • Responsible for architecting and building a J2EE based scalable, portal based content infrastructure for Sales and Marketing Automation
  • Raised over $26m venture capital funding

1989 - 2000 Executive Director, Informix/IBM, USA  

  • Led the development group for Parallel Database Systems Architecture for Symmetric Multiprocessor Machines (SMP) and Massively Parallel Machines (MPM)


  • Member, Standing Committee, National Mission on Education through ICT (NME ICT), Govt. of India
  • Board of Directors, Amrita Technology Business Incubator (sponsored by Department of Information Technology, Govt. of India)
  • Advisory Editor, Journal of Educational Technology & Society
  • 2011 - 13, ChairIEEE Education Society Chapter, IEEE India Council
  • 2011, General ChairIEEE International Conference on Technology Enhanced Education
  • Senior Member, IEEE
  • NEWS


Publication Type: Journal Article
Year of Publication Publication Type Title
2016 Journal Article S. Dr. Diwakar, Kumar, D., Radhamani, R., Sasidharakurup, H., Nizar, N., Dr. Achuthan, K., Prema Nedungadi, Raman, R., and Bipin G. Nair Dr., “Complementing Education via Virtual Labs: Implementation and Deployment of Remote Laboratories and Usage Analysis in South Indian Villages”, International Journal of Online Engineering (iJOE), vol. 12, pp. 8–15, 2016.[Abstract]

ICT-enabled virtual and remote labs have become a platform augmenting user engagement in blended education scenarios enhancing University education in rural India. A novel trend is the use of remote laboratories as learning and teaching tools in classrooms and elsewhere. This paper reports case studies based on our deployment of 20 web-based virtual labs with more than 170+ online experiments in Biotechnology and Biomedical engineering discipline with content for undergraduate and postgraduate education. Via hands-on workshops and direct feedback using questionnaires, we studied the role of remote lab experiments as learning and teaching tools. Although less reliable than direct feedback, we also included online feedback to perceive blended and remote learning styles among various users. Student and teacher user groups suggested significant usage adaptability of experimental process and indicated usage of remote labs as supplementary tools for complementing laboratory education. Usage analysis implicated the role of online labs as interactive textbooks augmenting student interaction and positive correlates to learning. More »»
2016 Journal Article Prema Nedungadi and Raman, R., “The medical virtual patient simulator (MedVPS) platform”, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol. 384, pp. 59-67, 2016.[Abstract]

Medical Virtual Patient Simulator (MedVPS) is a cutting-edge eLearning innovation for medical and other health professionals. It consists of a framework that supports various patient cases, tailored by interdisciplinary medical teams. Each virtual patient case follows the critical path to be followed for a specific patient in a hospital. MedVPS takes the student on a journey that enables the student to interview, examine, conduct physical, systematic and ultimately reach a diagnosis based on the path that is chosen. After the interactions, the student must decide whether each response is normal or abnormal and use the virtual findings to identify multiple probable diagnoses or reexamine the virtual patient with the goal to narrow down to the correct disease and then provide treatment. We present the architecture and functionality of the MedVPS platform and include a pilot study with medical students. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2016.

More »»
2015 Journal Article R. Raman, Prema Nedungadi, V Smrithi Rekha, and Achuthan, K., “Computer Science (CS) Education in Indian Schools: Situation Analysis using Darmstadt Model”, ACM Transactions on Computing Education (IN PRESS), 2015.
2015 Journal Article R. Raman, Dr. Achuthan, K., Prema Nedungadi, Dr. Diwakar, S., and Bose, R., “The VLAB OER Experience: Modeling Potential-Adopter Students' Acceptance”, IEEE Transactions on Education, vol. 57, pp. 235–241, 2015.[Abstract]

Virtual Labs (VLAB) is a multi-institutional Open Educational Resources (OER) initiative, exclusively focused on lab experiments for engineering education. This project envisages building a large OER repository, containing over 1650 virtual experiments mapped to the engineering curriculum. The introduction of VLAB is a paradigm shift in an educational system that is slow to change. Treating VLAB OER as an educational technology innovation, its adoption by potential-adopter engineering students (N=131) is modeled based on Roger's theory of perceived attributes. Regression and factor analysis were used to analyze the data. Results indicate that the attributes of Compatibility, Ease of Use, Relative Advantage, and Trialability significantly influence potential-adopter students' intention to adopt an innovation like VLAB. The study also observed that using OER (such as VLAB) on desktops and low-cost tablets had similar effects in student performance to using physical labs. This has interesting implications for education policy-makers who are looking to reduce the digital divide.

More »»
2015 Journal Article R. Raman, “Flipped labs as a smart ICT innovation: Modeling its diffusion among interinfluencing potential adopters”, Advances in Intelligent Systems and Computing, vol. 320, pp. 621-631, 2015.[Abstract]

Smart ICT innovation like flipped classroom pedagogy is freeing up face-to-face in-class teaching system for additional problem based learning activities in the class. But the focus of flipped classrooms is more on the theory side with related lab work in science subjects further getting marginalized. In this paper we are proposing Flipped Labs - a method of pedagogy premeditated as a comprehensive online lab learning environment outside the class room by means of tutorials, theory, procedure, animations and videos. Flipped labs have the potential to transform the traditional methods of lab teaching by providing more lab time to students. An ICT educational innovation like flipped labs will not occur in isolation in an environment where two interrelated potential adopters namely teachers and students influence each other and both have to adopt for the innovation to be successful. In this paper we provide the theoretical framework for the diffusion and the adoption patterns for flipped labs using theory of perceived attributes and take into account the important intergroup influence between teachers and students. The results of this analysis indicated that Relative Advantage, Compatibility, Ease of Use, Teacher Influence and Student Influence were found to be positively related to acceptance of flipped labs. © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2015.

More »»
2014 Journal Article R. Raman, Achuthan, K., Prema Nedungadi, and Ramesh, M., “Modeling Diffusion of Blended Labs for Science Experiments Among Undergraduate Engineering Students”, Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social-Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering, LNICST, vol. 135 LNICST, pp. 234-247, 2014.[Abstract]

<p>While there is large body of work examining efficacy of Virtual Labs in engineering education, studies to date have lacked modeling Blended Labs (BL) - mix of Virtual Labs (VL) and Physical Labs (PL) for science experimentation at the university engineering level. Using Rogers theory of perceived attributes, this paper provides a research framework that identifies the attributes for BL adoption in a social group comprising of (N=246) potential adopter undergraduate engineering students. Using Bass model the study also accounts for the interinfluence of related group of potential adopter faculties who are likely to exert positive influence on students. The results revealed that acceptance of BL as an innovation and its learning outcomes are strongly associated with innovation attributes like Relative Advantage, Compatibility, Ease of Use, Department and Faculty support. Learning outcomes are very positive under BL when compared to PL, though within BL, ordering of PL and VL was not significant. For certain innovation attributes gender differences were significant. Overall students expressed much more positive attitude to adopt BL model for learning than using only PL. © Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering 2014.</p>

More »»
2014 Journal Article S. Diwakar, Nair, B., Sasidharakurup, H., Radhamani, R., Sujatha, G., Shekhar, A., Achuthan, K., Prema Nedungadi, and Raman, R., “Usage and Diffusion of Biotechnology Virtual Labs for Enhancing University education in India’s Urban and Rural Areas”, E-Learning as a Socio-Cultural System: A Multidimensional Analysis, pp. 63-83, 2014.[Abstract]

Information and Communication Technology (ICT)-enabled virtual laboratories provide an online learning experience with the aid of computer-based instructional materials (animation, simulation, and remote-trigger experiments) for improving the active learning process. The project reported on in this chapter was set up in order to enhance university and college education, which is now becoming an advanced training environment for solving the geographical, social, and economic challenges faced in the interdisciplinary field of science education, especially in India. In order to study the role of biotechnology virtual laboratories in the current education system, a pedagogical survey, via workshops and online feedback, was carried out among several student and teacher groups of different Indian universities. This chapter reports how virtual labs in biotechnology can be used to improve teaching and learning experiences in an easy and understandable way with user interaction and how such tools serve to effectively reduce the problems of laboratory education especially in remote areas. The results obtained from user-feedback analysis suggest the use of virtual labs as a recommended component in blended education in large classroom scenarios for enhancing autonomous learning process and as an alternative to enhance lab education in geographically remote and economically challenged institutes. More »»
2014 Journal Article S. Dr. Diwakar, Parasuram, H., Medini, Ca, Raman, R., Prema Nedungadi, Wiertelak, Ed, Srivastava, Se, Dr. Achuthan, K., and Bipin G. Nair Dr., “Complementing neurophysiology education for developing countries via cost-effective virtual labs: Case studies and classroom scenarios”, Journal of Undergraduate Neuroscience Education, vol. 12, pp. A130-A139, 2014.[Abstract]

Classroom-level neuroscience experiments vary from detailed protocols involving chemical, physiological and imaging techniques to computer-based modeling. The application of Information and Communication Technology (ICT) is revolutionizing the current laboratory scenario in terms of active learning especially for distance education cases. Virtual web-based labs are an asset to educational institutions confronting economic issues in maintaining equipment, facilities and other conditions needed for good laboratory practice. To enhance education, we developed virtual laboratories in neuroscience and explored their first-level use in (Indian) University education in the context of developing countries. Besides using interactive animations and remotely-triggered experimental devices, a detailed mathematical simulator was implemented on a web-based software platform. In this study, we focused on the perceptions of technology adoption for a virtual neurophysiology laboratory as a new pedagogy tool for complementing college laboratory experience. The study analyses the effect of virtual labs on users assessing the relationship between cognitive, social and teaching presence. Combining feedback from learners and teachers, the study suggests enhanced motivation for students and improved teaching experience for instructors. © Faculty for Undergraduate Neuroscience.

More »»
2014 Journal Article R. Raman, Prema Nedungadi, and Ramesh, M. V., “Modeling diffusion of tabletop for collaborative learning using interactive science lab simulations”, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), vol. 8337 LNCS, pp. 333-340, 2014.[Abstract]

Within the context of Roger's Diffusion of Innovation theory we propose a pedagogical framework for attributes that can significantly affect student adoption of collaborative learning environment like multi-user, multi-touch tabletop. We investigated the learning outcomes of secondary school students in India collaboratively using OLabs on a tabletop (EG1 = 30) vs. individually using at desktops (EG2 = 92). We analyzed the nature of communication, touch and non-touch gesture actions, position around the tabletop, focus group interviews, and pre and post test scores. Using Bass model the study also accounts for the inter influence of related group of potential adopter teachers who are likely to exert positive influence on students. The results revealed that learning outcomes on tabletop are strongly associated with innovation attributes like Relative Advantage, Compatibility, Ease of Use, Perceived Enjoyment, Perceived usefulness and Teachers support. Overall students expressed much more positive attitude to adopt tabletop technology for learning vs. desktop. We find that the mean group performance gain is significant with collaboration using tabletop and significantly greater than the group using desktops. We also find that the group interactions with the tabletop area significant factor that contributes to the group's average performance gain. However, the total time spent in while using the tabletop is surprisingly not a significant factor in the performance gain. Our findings contribute to the design of new pedagogical models for science learning that maximizes the collaborative learning potential of tabletops. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

More »»
2013 Journal Article R. Raman, Dr. Achuthan, K., and Prema Nedungadi, “Virtual labs in engineering education: Modeling perceived critical mass of potential adopter teachers”, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), vol. 8095 LNCS, pp. 288-300, 2013.[Abstract]

Virtual labs for science experiments are a multimedia technology innovation. A possible growth pattern of the perceived critical mass for virtual labs adoption is modeled using (N=240) potential-adopter teachers based on Roger's theory of diffusion and of perceived attributes. Results indicate that perceived critical mass influences behavior intention to adopt a technology innovation like Virtual Labs and is affected by innovation characteristics like relative advantage, ease of use and compatibility. The work presented here models the potential-adopter teacher's perceptions and identifies the relative importance of specific factors that influence critical mass attainment for an innovation such as Virtual Labs.

More »»
2012 Journal Article R. Raman, Prema Nedungadi, and , “Modelling diffusion of a personalized learning framework”, Educational Technology Research and Development, vol. 60, pp. 585–600, 2012.[Abstract]

<p>A new modelling approach for diffusion of personalized learning as an educational process innovation in social group comprising adopter-teachers is proposed. An empirical analysis regarding the perception of 261 adopter-teachers from 18 schools in India about a particular personalized learning framework has been made. Based on this analysis, teacher training (TT) has been identified as one of the dominant factor which can significantly influence decision by teachers to adopt the educational innovation. Different situations corresponding to fixed and time dependent dynamic carrying capacity of potential adopter-teachers at any time have been developed. New generalized models capturing the growth dynamics of the innovation diffusion process in conjunction with the evolutionary carrying capacity of potential adopters are investigated. The coupled dynamics allows forecasting the likelihood of success or failure of new educational innovation in a given context. Different scenarios for TT are considered based on—constant growth rate model; proportional growth rate model; stratified growth rate model. The proposed modelling framework would be of great interest to education policy makers as it has the potential to predict the likelihood of success or failure of new educational innovation.</p>

More »»
2012 Journal Article Prema Nedungadi and Raman, R., “A new approach to personalization: Integrating e-learning and m-learning”, Educational Technology Research and Development, vol. 60, pp. 659-678, 2012.[Abstract]

Most personalized learning systems are designed for either personal computers (e-learning) or mobile devices (m-learning). Our research has resulted in a cloud-based adaptive learning system that incorporates mobile devices into a classroom setting. This system is fully integrated into the formative assessment process and, most importantly, coexists with the present e-learning environment. Unlike many mobile learning systems, this system provides teachers with real-time feedback about individual and group learners. Its scalable and extendable architectural framework includes the server-side pedagogical recommendation of content adaptation based on the users' knowledge-levels and preferences. Content is also automatically adapted to the end device that is being used. This context-aware delivery allows users to switch between e-learning and m-learning, and between devices, without any loss in personalized content. Our work builds on a web-based Adaptive Learning and Assessment System (ALAS) that is built on the Knowledge Space Theory model. At present, this system is used at school computer labs and our goal was to widen this user-base by enhancing this system to support personalized learning on mobile devices. This study describes our process of developing this technology, and contains an empirical analysis of students' performance, perceptions, and achievements when using ALAS on both personal computers and mobile devices. © 2012 Association for Educational Communications and Technology.

More »»
2011 Journal Article R. Raman, Prema Nedungadi, Dr. Achuthan, K., and Dr. Diwakar, S., “Integrating Collaboration and Accessibility for Deploying Virtual Labs using VLCAP”, International Transaction Journal of Engineering, Management, & Applied Sciences & Technologies , 2011.[Abstract]

The Virtual Labs Collaboration and Accessibility Platform (VLCAP) provides tools to further India’s National Mission project: the building of over 150 Virtual Labs (VL) for over 1450 multi-disciplinary undergraduate- and postgraduate-level experiments. VLCAP optimizes VL development and deployment costs and ensures a rich, consistent learning experience. Its multi-tier, scalable architecture allows VL builders to focus on their experiments. Its modules (VL workbench, collaborative content management, repositories) have axiomatically-designed interfaces that bring speed and efficiency to design. Its integration of user-management tasks (single sign-on, role-based access control, etc.) enhances flexibility without compromising security. The key accomplishments include its application of simulation VL and its provision of easily usable authoring tools, pre-configured templates, and management and assessment modules for instructors. VLCAP’s support of multiple deployment models, including the cloud, hosted, and mixed models, ensures scalable and reliable usage in hosted environments, and secure access for learners in remote locations.

More »»
2011 Journal Article Prema Nedungadi and Raman, R., “Learning-Enabled Computer Assessment of Science Labs with Scaffolds Methodology”, The Technology Interface International Journal | , vol. Volume 11, Number 2 , no. Fall/Winter 2011, 2011.
Publication Type: Book Chapter
Year of Publication Publication Type Title
2016 Book Chapter A. Jayakumar, Babu, G. S., Raman, R., and Prema Nedungadi, “Integrating Writing Direction and Handwriting Letter Recognition in Touch-Enabled Devices”, in Integrating Writing Direction and Handwriting Letter Recognition in Touch-Enabled Devices, vol. 380, New Delhi: Springer India, 2016, pp. 393–400.[Abstract]

Optical character recognition (OCR) transforms printed text to editable format and digital writing on smart devices. Learning to write programs has made learners trace an alphabet to learn the flow of writing and OCR by itself is less effective as it ignores the directional flow of writing and only focuses on the final image. Our research designed a unique android-based multilingual game-like writing app that enhances the writing experience. A key focus of the research was to compare and identify character recognition algorithms that are effective on low-cost android tablets with limited processing capabilities. We integrate a quadrant-based direction checking system with artificial neural networks and compare it to the existing systems. Our solution has the dual advantage of evaluating the writing direction and significantly increasing the accuracy compared to the existing systems. This program is used as the literacy tool in many villages in rural India. More »»
2015 Book Chapter Prema Nedungadi, Malini, P., and Raman, R., “Inquiry Based Learning Pedagogy for Chemistry Practical Experiments Using OLabs”, in Advances in Intelligent Informatics, Springer, 2015, pp. 633–642.[Abstract]

Our paper proposes a new pedagogical approach for learning chemistry practical experiments based on three modes of inquiry-based learning namely; structured, guided and open. Online Labs (OLabs) is a web-based learning environment for science practical experiments that include simulations, animations, tutorials and assessments. Inquiry-based learning is a pedagogy that supports student-centered learning and encourages them to think scientifically. It develops evidence based reasoning and creative problem solving skills that result in knowledge creation and higher recall. We discuss the methodology and tools that OLabs provides to enable educators to design three types of inquiry-based learning for Chemistry experiments. The integration of inquiry-based learning into OLabs is aligned with the Indian Central Board of Secondary Education (CBSE) goal of nurturing higher order inquiry skills for student centered and active learning. Inquiry-based OLabs pedagogy also empowers the teachers to provide differentiated instruction to the students while enhancing student interest and motivation.

More »»
2015 Book Chapter R. Raman, Haridas, M., and Prema Nedungadi, “Blending Concept Maps with Online Labs for STEM Learning”, in Advances in Intelligent Informatics, Springer, 2015, pp. 133-141.[Abstract]

In this paper we describe the architecture of an e-learning environment that blends concept maps with Online Labs (OLabs) to enhance student performance in biology. In the Indian context, a secondary school student’s conceptual understanding of hard topics in biology is at risk because of a lack of qualified teachers and necessary equipments in labs to conduct experiments. Concept map provides a visual framework which allows students to get an overview of a concept, its various sub concepts and their relationships and linkages. OLabs with its animations, videos and simulations is an interactive, immersive approach for practicing science experiments. The blended e-learning environment was tested by systematically developing a concept map for the concept “Photosynthesis” and by successfully integrating it into the OLabs environment. Our blended approach to concept understanding has interesting implications for the teacher who is engaged in training programs.

More »»
2014 Book Chapter Prema Nedungadi, L, J., and Raman, R., “Considering Misconceptions in Automatic Essay Scoring with A-TEST - Amrita Test Evaluation and Scoring Tool”, in e-Infrastructure and e-Services for Developing Countries: 5th International Conference, AFRICOMM 2013, Blantyre, Malawi, November 25-27, 2013, Revised Selected Papers, Cham: Springer International Publishing, 2014, pp. 271–281.
Publication Type: Conference Paper
Year of Publication Publication Type Title
2015 Conference Paper Prema Nedungadi, Haridas, M., and Raman, R., “Blending concept maps with online labs (OLabs): Case study with biological science”, in ACM International Conference Proceeding Series, 2015, vol. 10-13-August-2015, pp. 186-190.[Abstract]

Experimental learning combined with theoretical learning enhances the conceptual understanding of a subject. Therefore, the Online Labs (OLabs) that hosts science experiments was developed. OLabs uses interactive simulations with theory, procedure, animations, videos, assessments and reference material. Our study blended OLabs with concept maps to examine if it enhances students' learning in Biology. Concept mapping is a framework that provides a deeper knowledge of a subject by understanding the relationships among concepts. The study was quasi-experimental; pre-test, post-test and a satisfaction survey was used as measurement instruments. The study sample was 54 students from a school in Haripad, Kerala, India. The students were randomly grouped into a control and an experimental group. The experimental group that used concept maps as a learning aid scored slightly higher, suggesting blending concept maps can lead to a deeper understanding of the subject. Gender difference did not significantly affect the scores. © 2015 ACM.

More »»
2015 Conference Paper Ma Pokkiyarath, Raman, R., Dr. Achuthan, K., and Jayaraman, Bd, “Preparing global engineers: USA-India academia & industry led approach”, in Proceedings - Frontiers in Education Conference, FIE, 2015, vol. 2015-February.[Abstract]

A major challenge in engineering education today in India is preparing students with the skill set needed for a global industry. This paper describes an innovative partnership between two institutions of higher education in India and USA and a multinational corporation to address this challenge. The collaborative manner in which the industry and institutions internationalized the curriculum is a key feature of this program. This unique approach has resulted in the employees of a multinational company in India being able to get two high quality Masters-level degrees in engineering, customized to their current and future requirements at a very affordable price point. This paper looks at cost savings, collaborative course development between industry and international academia, using technology to deliver courses and on-the-job professional development program for employees while keeping the employees motivated. But there are also interesting lessons learnt regarding teaching in English, adjusting to the local cultural context and the overall integration into the Indian academic setting. The process innovation described here would be of great interest to academia, industry and education policy makers and has the potential to be replicated in the entire field of non-engineering and interdisciplinary academic programs. © 2014 IEEE.

More »»
2014 Conference Paper A. K, R, K., ,, and Raman, R., “Security Vulnerabilities in Open Source Projects: An India Perspective”, in 2nd International Conference on Information and Communication Technology (ICoICT), 2014, 2014.
2014 Conference Paper Prema Nedungadi, L, J., and Raman, R., “Considering Misconceptions in Automatic Essay Scoring with A-TEST - Amrita Test Evaluation & Scoring Tool”, in AFRICOMM 2013, Springer Lecture Notes of the Institute for Computer Sciences, Social Informatics and Telecommunications Engineering (LNICST) , 2014.[Abstract]

<p>In large classrooms with limited teacher time, there is a need for automatic evaluation of text answers and real-time personalized feedback during the learning process. In this paper, we discuss Amrita Test Evaluation &amp; Scoring Tool (A-TEST), a text evaluation and scoring tool that learns from course materials and from human-rater scored text answers and also directly from teacher input. We use latent semantic analysis (LSA) to identify the key concepts. While most AES systems use LSA to compare students’ responses with a set of ideal essays, this ignores learning the common misconceptions that students may have about a topic. A-TEST also uses LSA to learn misconceptions from the lowest scoring essays using this as a factor for scoring. ‘A-TEST’ was evaluated using two datasets of 1400 and 1800 pre-scored text answers that were manually scored by two teachers. The scoring accuracy and kappa scores between the derived ‘A-TEST’ model and the human raters were comparable to those between the human raters.</p>

More »»
2014 Conference Paper M. P., Dr. Achuthan, K., and Raman, R., “Preparing Global Engineers, Academia-Industry led approach: Indian experience”, in 44th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference, 2014.
2014 Conference Paper K. Dr. Achuthan, Raman, R., Ramesh, M. V., and P, S., “Internationalizing Engineering Education With Phased Study Programs: India-European Experience”, in 44th ASEE/IEEE Frontiers in Education Conference (IEEE Xplore), 2014.
2014 Conference Paper R. Raman, Kv, Ub, V Smrithi Rekha, and Prema Nedungadi, “Using WebGL to implement a glass lens in Online Labs”, in 2014 7th International Conference on Contemporary Computing, IC3 2014, 2014, pp. 50-55.[Abstract]

Online Labs are revolutionizing education by offering access to content anytime and from any place. The OLabs project has had a deep impact on learning capabilities of students by providing an integrated environment that includes videos, animations, simulations and textual content. It has also helped to substitute teachers wherever there have been gaps. OLabs offers an excellent platform for the improvement of Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths (STEM) education which has been the focus of several countries in recent times. The current content in OLabs is 2 dimensional. 2D content comes with its own limitations of low accuracy and low realism and hence moving to browser based 3D representations is important to offer an enriching experience to the learner. WebGL offers the powerful capability of rendering 2D as well as 3D content in any browser without the need to install additional applications or components. With the advent of WebGL, writing 3D applications have become simpler since most details are abstracted from the programmer. New features are added almost every week in WebGL by the community making it rich and powerful. In this paper we present our work on implementing, in 3D, a convex lens experiment in OLabs Physics using WebGL and dynamic cube mapping. We propose to extend this work to more experiments in Physics and Chemistry, demonstrate it to students and measure their learning. © 2014 IEEE.

More »»
2014 Conference Paper K. Achuthan, Sivan, S., and Raman, R., “Teacher receptivity in creative use of virtual laboratories”, in Humanitarian Technology Conference (R10-HTC), 2014 IEEE Region 10, 2014.[Abstract]

Technology has helped advance science education in its delivery of content to students. These advancements have led to improved conceptual understanding of physical phenomena in students. In most educational systems, teachers play a crucial role in the introduction of innovative pedagogic interventions. In this paper, the perceived impact on use of virtual laboratories and simulations as a teaching aide in science education by teachers is characterized. Significant improvements on teaching time, teaching methodology, and communication of concepts over traditional teaching techniques are reported. The value of virtual laboratories in individualized learning as opposed to group centric learning as in a conventional laboratory is further explored. Key challenges to complete adoption of these technologies include infrastructural lacunae and depth of teacher knowledge. Hence the individual teacher commitment along with the necessary ICT support can impact the knowledge environment. With functionality to simulate real environments, create assessments, monitor individual student performances, added to the scalability of the virtual laboratory platforms to encompass multiple thematic disciplines and cater to millions of users makes it a sustainable and a need-to-have teaching tool. More »»
2014 Conference Paper R. Raman, Vachhrajani, H., P Shivdas, A., and Prema Nedungadi, “Low cost tablets as disruptive educational innovation: modeling its diffusion within Indian K12 system”, in Innovations in Technology Conference (InnoTek), 2014 IEEE, 2014.[Abstract]

The world of today is not looking for innovations that are mere incremental but those that are disruptive. Aakash, the Low Cost Tablet (LCT) initiative by Indian govt. was launched in 2011 amidst dominance by the likes of Apple, Amazon, and Samsung etc. Single most objective of this initiative was affordable ICT learning tool for the 220+ million students. LCT like Aakash can be seen as a disruptive innovation from the as they are simple to use, cheap, low performing, targeted at low portion of mainstream market and focused on social sectors like education, health to increase access and equity. Within Rogers theory of Diffusion of Innovation, we propose a framework for innovation attributes that can significantly predict student and teacher behavior intentions and motivations towards LCT for use in classrooms. Authors investigate the innovation attributes for adoption of LCT in a social group comprising of (N=121) potential-adopter students and teachers from India. The results revealed that motivations for adopting LCT are strongly associated with innovation attributes like relative advantage, compatibility, ease of use, peer influence, perceived enjoyment and perceived usefulness. Overall, both teachers and students expressed positive attitude towards using LCT as it enhanced their digital literacy skills. Bigger question is to identify what kind of new teacher training program, models and approaches and learning environment are required for successful adoption of educational innovation like LCT. Findings contribute to the design of new pedagogical models that maximizes learning potential of LCTs for K12 education.

More »»
2014 Conference Paper R. Raman, Lal, A., and Dr. Achuthan, K., “Serious games based approach to cyber security concept learning: Indian context”, in International Conference on Green Computing Communication and Electrical Engineering (ICGCCEE), 2014.[Abstract]

In the world of computer based gaming most of them are purely for entertainment but recently serious games are also emerging. Our research study focused primarily on a type of serious game with multiple scenarios designed specifically to support cyber security concept learning. We studied the impact of game based learning on cyber security graduate engineering students (N=20). Existing game scenarios were enhanced with summative assessments. A control group (EG1=10) was given the summative test without playing the game and a different group (EG2=10) was given the same test after playing the game. Results indicate that EG2 had better learning outcomes though there was learning curve with the game itself.

More »»
2014 Conference Paper R. Raman, Sunny, S., Pavithran, V., and Dr. Achuthan, K., “Framework for evaluating Capture the Flag (CTF) security competitions”, in International Conference for Convergence of Technology (I2CT), 2014.[Abstract]

A large number of ethical hacking competitions are organized worldwide as Capture The Flag (CTF) events. But there does not exist a framework to evaluate and rank CTFs that will guide participants as to which CTF's to participate. In a CTF event, the participants are required to either solve a set of challenges to gain points or they are required to defend their system by eliminating the vulnerabilities while attacking other's system vulnerabilities. We are proposing a framework that would evaluate and rank CTFs according to factors like similarity of the tasks to the common critical vulnerabilities, solvability of tasks, periodicity, training given prior to CTF, geographical reach, problem solving skills etc. In the next step these factors are systematically assigned weights using Analytic Hierarchy Process. As part of frame work creation and validation, ten CTFs have been analysed. Our analysis indicates that: All CTFs fall in to one of the three categories (jeopardy, attack-defence and mixed); CTFs often adopt popular software vulnerabilities and threats as tasks to be solved; Only few CTFs give formal training prior to the event; Complexity of the tasks to be solved varies from CTF to CTF. Five CTFs were ranked using the newly developed framework.

More »»
2014 Conference Paper K. Dr. Achuthan, S., F., Prema Nedungadi, Raman, R., and l., B., “Improving Perception of Invisible Phenomena in UG Physics Education Using ICT”, in International Conference on Information and Communication Technology (IEEE Xplore), 2014.[Abstract]

Experimental learning plays paramount role in Physics education. Experimental physics requires phenomenological investigations in several cases and this includes understanding visible and invisible heuristic procedures to discern underlying concepts. This study investigates the invisible yet evident occurrences of physical phenomena that are difficult to grasp from a learner's perspective. In this work the contribution of compounded effects of using computational techniques, multimedia enhanced simulations and interactive animations to draw the learner's attention to those physically undiscernable aspects of physics experiments is presented. The study has investigated three physics experiments by engineering students (N= 42) and the methodology focused on differentiating the learning outcomes between classroom teaching, laboratory experimentation and virtual laboratories. The students were divided into two batches. Visual and conceptual understanding was quantified by assessments that included their visual and conceptual understanding. Our study not only revealed severe limitations in learning invisible phenomena based on traditional classroom methods but also empirically validated the positive impact on learning outcomes when the classroom method is combined with Virtual Labs approach. More »»
2014 Conference Paper Prema Nedungadi, Jayakumar, A., and Raman, R., “Low cost tablet enhanced pedagogy for early grade reading: Indian context”, in IEEE Region 10 Humanitarian Technology Conference (R10-HTC), Chennai, 2014.[Abstract]

In our research we have designed pedagogy for Low Cost Tablets (LCT) to enhance early grade reading in multi-grade classrooms in rural areas of India. The use of LCT helps meet the challenge of education in areas where there is a lack of qualified tutors and shortage of computing resources. The program has been implemented with (N=38) students in tribal areas of Kerala. Reading was the most common problem with the primary children, while mathematics and reading comprehension was a major challenge for children who were in middle school. Our pilot study students were able to learn faster on their own without requiring formal training due to the ease of use and the touch based interface of LCT, and they liked the idea of repeating lessons as many times as they wished. Teachers were trained in the use of LCT for assessment and early intervention and effective ways to bring up the reading skills of the students. Our findings confirm that LCT is powerful motivator in education and has a huge potential to address the issue of school dropouts. Our proposed pedagogy for LCT and findings will be of interest to educational policy makers who are looking at LCT options such as Aakash tablets to improve literacy levels among early grade learners.

More »»
2013 Conference Paper Prema Nedungadi, Raman, R., and McGregor, M., “Enhanced STEM learning with Online Labs: Empirical study comparing physical labs, tablets and desktops”, in Frontiers in Education Conference, 2013 IEEE, 2013.[Abstract]

<p>India's educational challenge includes a large school going population, shortage of science teachers and lack of science labs in many schools. To counter this challenge, the Online Labs (OLabs) pedagogy is designed as a complete learning environment with tutorials, theory, procedure, animations, videos and simulations while the assessment includes conceptual, experimental, procedural and reporting skills. We discuss two separate empirical studies using OLabs to study the performance gains, student attitudes and preferences while using physical labs, desktops and tablets. The first study was at a school that compared students who learnt individually with OLabs on desktops, to students who learnt with the traditional teacher led physical labs. The second study was at a science camp and compared OLabs on desktops to OLabs that were context adapted for android tablets. There were significant differences between the physical labs and the self study mode using OLabs on desktops, but no significant differences between OLabs on desktops compared to OLabs on tablets.</p>

More »»
2011 Conference Paper K. Dr. Achuthan, Sreelatha, K. S., Surendran, S., Dr. Diwakar, S., Prema Nedungadi, Humphreys, S., Sreekala, C. O., Pillai, Z. S., Raman, R., Deepthi, A., Gangadharan, R., Appukuttan, S., Ranganatha, J., Sambhudevan, S., and Mahesh, S., “The VALUE @ Amrita Virtual Labs Project: Using Web Technology to Provide Virtual Laboratory Access to Students”, in Global Humanitarian Technology Conference (GHTC), 2011 IEEE, 2011, pp. 117-121.[Abstract]

In response to the Indian Ministry of Human Resource Development (MHRD) National Mission on Education through Information and Communication Technology (NME-ICT) Initiative, the Virtual and Accessible Laboratories Universalizing Education (VALUE @ Amrita) Virtual Labs Project was initiated to provide laboratory-learning experiences to college and university students across India who may not have access to adequate laboratory facilities or equipment. These virtual laboratories require only a broadband Internet connection and standard web browser. Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham University (Amrita University) is part of a consortium of twelve institutions building over two hundred virtual labs covering nine key disciplines in science and engineering. This National Mission project hopes to reach out to India's millions of engineering and science students at both undergraduate and postgraduate levels. The Virtual Labs Project is providing virtual laboratory experiments that directly support the All India Council for Technical Education (AICTE) and the University Grants Commission (UGC) model curricula for engineering and sciences undergraduate and postgraduate programs. More »»
2011 Conference Paper Prema Nedungadi, Raman, R., Dr. Achuthan, K., and Dr. Diwakar, S., “Virtual Labs Collaborative & Accessibility Platform (VLCAP)”, in Proceedings of The 2011 IAJC-ASEE International Conference , 2011.[Abstract]

India has embarked on a National Mission project to build over 150 Virtual Labs (VL) targeting over 1450 experiments mapped to the under graduate and postgraduate curriculum. Due to the lack of user centric tools and mechanisms for VL authors, it became crucial to architect a Virtual Labs Collaborative and Accessibility Platform (VLCAP) for use by the large scientific community building multi-disciplinary VL.With multi-tier, scalable architecture at its core, the technology platform allows VL builders to focus on particular logic of their experiments. The axiomatic design of the user interfaces built into the various modules including VL workbench, collaborative content management, repositories and so on assists in functional use of the elements while reducing the overall development time of VL by individual users. Integration of common tasks in user management, such as single sign-on, role based access control etc. enhances flexibility without compromising on security. More »»
2010 Conference Paper Na Sharma and Raman, R., “Opinion maps for tracking and visualizing feedback on digital video content”, in ICDLE 2010 - 2010 4th International Conference on Distance Learning and Education, Proceedings, San Juan, PR, 2010, pp. 20-27.[Abstract]

An increasingly large amount of digital video content continues to become available on the Internet. This content ranges from short entertainment clips by amateurs lasting a few minutes to full-fledged, significantly longer, serious course lectures and presentations by subject matter experts. As these video bits of content continue to get pushed out one-way, to the learner, the content authors have no quick or easy way of getting an objective, machine-processable opinion on arbitrary subsections of their content. In this paper, we explore the design and implementation of an innovative software visualization system that uses 'Opinion Maps' and a WYSIWYG (When You See Is When You Give) approach to bring a much needed real-time focus to the feedback aspect of the video mode of instruction. In addition to using routine graphical charting to visualize server-side tabular data, an Opinion Map employs a combination of (i) a Tukey Box+ plot - a simple but powerful extension to the Tukey Box plot - to present N-point ordinal opinion scores, collected from learners potentially for every single second of the video content, (ii) a per-second opinion score histogram, and (iii) overall 'best' and 'worst' opinion score visualizations. The system is nonintrusive; it requires no special content authoring processes and bolts on to prerecorded digital video content. More »»
2010 Conference Paper R. Raman and Prema Nedungadi, “Performance improvements in schools with Adaptive Learning and Assessment”, in ICDLE 2010 - 2010 4th International Conference on Distance Learning and Education, Proceedings, San Juan, PR, 2010, pp. 10-14.[Abstract]

This paper presents Amrita Learning, a web-based, multimedia-enabled, Adaptive Assessment and Learning System for schools. Computer-based adaptive assessments aim to use an optimal and individualized assessment path to determine the knowledge level of students. The new goal for adaptive assessment is based on educational outcomes, which describe what learners must be able to do as a result of items studied. Assessment based on outcomes creates the initial roadmap for the educational model, ensuring that students are not learning items that are already mastered. Learners and instructors can accurately determine their areas of strengths and weaknesses, and use this to determine future instruction. This paper explains the underlying principles used in the initial adaptive assessment followed by evaluation that is closely interwoven with learning. An expert module continuously adjusts the content and method of presentation based on the sequence of learner's recent responses and prior knowledge. The system maintains and updates both the individual learner profile and group profiles. Amrita Learning, targeted to school students, is built upon the principles of spiral learning with mixed presentation from multiple skill areas, thus providing continuous reinforcement in all skill-areas. The proposed competency model has been pilot tested in both city and rural area schools. In the majority of cases where students used it consistently, there were quantifiable improvements in learning levels and performance in schools. Summaries of the results and recommendations are included in this paper. More »»
2010 Conference Paper R. Raman and Prof. Nedungadi, P., “Adaptive learning methodologies to support reforms in Continuous formative Evaluation”, in ICEIT 2010 - 2010 International Conference on Educational and Information Technology, Proceedings, Chongqing, 2010, vol. 2, pp. V2429-V2433.[Abstract]

This paper presents the extensions of Amrita Learning, a web-based, multimedia-enabled, Adaptive Assessment and Learning System for schools to facilitate Continuous and Comprehensive Evaluation (CCE). Continuous Evaluation refers to the formative assessment from the beginning of instruction and periodically during instruction and is closely interwoven with learning. Amrita Learning's CCE extension supports adaptive assessments directly mapped to CBSE curriculum, monitors proper implementation of CCE and automates, enforces, and gathers usage and performance statistics. Being an adaptive system, it already supports self-paced learning, constructivist, mixed presentation, mastery, and spiral learning. The proposed competency model has been developed and is being pilot tested at schools in India. Initial results of the study are discussed in this paper. © 2010 IEEE. More »»
2010 Conference Paper Prema Nedungadi and Raman, R., “Effectiveness of adaptive learning with interactive animations and simulations”, in ICACTE 2010 - 2010 3rd International Conference on Advanced Computer Theory and Engineering, Proceedings, Chengdu, 2010, vol. 6, pp. V640-V644.[Abstract]

We present the adaptive simulations of Amrita Learning, a web-based, interactive eLearning program that aims to create a realistic mathematics and science laboratory environment for school students to study equipments, perform simulation experiments interactively, measure or analyze results, and understand their application, It teaches abstract concepts, such as flow of electrons and magnetic fields, using highly sophisticated and interactive simulations. The adaptive simulations follow the time tested principles of Amrita Learning, a previously discussed adaptive learning system, including adaptive sequencing, presentation and feedback. This novel system enables students to work at their own pace with learning level, content and presentation individualized based on a dynamically updated student profile. While individualized simulations, animations, tutorials, and assessments enrich learning experience, simultaneous access to the content by thousands of students makes the return on investment very high. Student feedback and assessments are used to compare the adaptive simulations and animations with the traditional laboratory. Results show that while the majority of the students preferred the ease of use, adaptive feedback and additional learning options of the adaptive simulations, they missed the group discussions and extra attention from the teacher at the traditional lab. More »»
Faculty Details


Faculty Email: