Qualification: 
Ph.D
Email: 
rjayakumar@aims.amrita.edu

Dr. Jayakumar R. is a Professor at the Center for Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine (ACNSMM), Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Kochi-682041, specializing in the area of Biopolymeric Nanomaterials. Dr. R. Jayakumar joined ACNSMM in November 2007. He received his Ph. D. in Polymer Chemistry from Anna University, Chennai, India (2002). He has over 215 Journal publications, 8 book chapters and 10 patents to his credit. His publications have been cited more than 10200 times with h-index-53. In addition, he has also edited and published 4 books. He has received the “Best Paper Award” from Journal of Materials Science Materials in Medicine (Springer) and IET Nanobiotechnology Journal. Recently Dr. Jayakumar received “Best Faculty Researcher Award” from Indian Chitin and Chitosan Society (ICCS) and “MRSI Medal-2017” from Materials Research Society of India (MRSI), India for his significant contribution towards biomaterials research.

Dr. Jayakumar's research laboratory at Amrita Center for Nanosciences and Molecular Medicine is mainly interested in the development of biodegradable polymeric nanofibers, nanogels, nanoparticles, nanocomposite scaffolds and injectable hydrogels for tissue engineering (Adipose, Bone, Cartilage, Periodontal, Skin and Vascular), Drug Delivery (antimicrobial, protein & peptide) and wound dressing applications. Dr. Jayakumar has been consistently recognized for his academic excellence and research. As a postgraduate, he ranked third in M. Sc. from Bharathidasan University. He was awarded a Senior Research fellowship from the Council of Scientific and Industrial Research (CSIR). Later he was awarded the University Postdoctoral Fellowship from Chonbuk National University (2002-2003), South Korea. In Portugal, he was awarded FCT Postdoctoral Fellowship from the Government of Portugal (2003-2005). In addition, he was also awarded the prestigious JSPS Postdoctoral Fellowship (2005-2007) from the Japan Society for the Promotion of Science (JSPS), Japan. He has also received "Young Investigator Fellowship-2008" from Department of Science and Technology (DST), India. He is a reviewer and editorial board member of many international journals. He has also completed more than 15 funded research projects. He has research collaborations in USA, Japan, South Korea, Portugal & Taiwan.

Publications

Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2018

Journal Article

S. Vignesh, Gopalakrishnan, A., Poorna, M. R., Shantikumar V Nair, Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, and Dr. Ullas Mony, “Fabrication of micropatterned alginate-gelatin and k-carrageenan hydrogels of defined shapes using simple wax mould method as a platform for stem cell/induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (iPSC) culture”, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2018.[Abstract]


Micropatterning techniques involve soft lithography, which is laborious, expensive and restricted to a narrow spectrum of biomaterials. In this work we report, first time employment of patterned wax moulds for generation of micropatterned alginate-gelatin and κ-carrageenan (κ-CRG) hydrogel systems by a novel, simple and cost effective method. We generated and characterized uniform and reproducible micropatterned hydrogels of varying sizes and shapes such as square projections, square grooves, and circular grids and crisscrossed hillocks. The rheological analysis showed that κ-carrageenan hydrogels had higher gel strength when compared to alginate-gelatin hydrogels. Human Mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) and Human Induced Pluripotent Stem Cells (hiPSCs) were found to be cytocompatible with these hydrogels. This micropatterned hydrogel system may have potential application in tissue engineering and also in understanding the basic biology behind the stem cell/iPSC fate.

More »»

2017

Journal Article

Rajitha Panonnummal, Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, and Dr. Sabitha M., “Comparative anti-psoriatic efficacy studies of clobetasol loaded chitin nanogel and marketed cream”, Eur J Pharm Sci, vol. 96, pp. 193-206, 2017.[Abstract]


In the present study chitin nanogel loaded with anti-psoriatic drug clobetasol was developed (CLCNG) for its topical delivery in psoriasis. CLCNG had the particle size of 132±14nm, with gel like consistency, stability in refrigerator, having higher drug release properties at acidic pH. CLCNG exhibited significant toxicity towards HaCaT and THP-1cell lines by MTT assay. The uptake of nanogel by HaCaT cell lines was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy. CLCNG at 0.35mg/ml exhibited significant anti-inflammatory activity with an average of 65% and 70% inhibition in COX and LOX activities expressed in THP-1 cells. In vitro skin permeation studies revealed the increased transdermal flux with fragmented stratum corneum and loosened epidermal layers in CLCNG treated samples, compared with control drug solution. The in vivo anti-psoriatic studies done on imiquimod model confirmed the potential benefits of the nanogel for the topical delivery of clobetasol in psoriasis.

More »»

2017

Journal Article

Y. A. Skorik, Golyshev, A. A., Kritchenkov, A. S., Gasilova, E. R., Poshina, D. N., Sivaram, A. J., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Development of drug delivery systems for taxanes using ionic gelation of carboxyacyl derivatives of chitosan.”, Carbohydrate polymers, vol. 162, pp. 49-55, 2017.[Abstract]


Nanoparticles of two chitosan derivatives - N-succinyl-chitosan (SC) and N-glutaryl-chitosan (GC) - were developed as passive transport systems for taxanes (paclitaxel and docetaxel) using an ionic gelation technique with sodium tripolyphosphate. These nanoparticles had an apparent hydrodynamic diameter of 300-350nm, a ζ-potential of 25-31mV, an encapsulation efficiency of 21-26%, and a drug loading efficiency of 6-13%. DLS and SLS analysis shows that the nanoparticles have a unimodal size distribution and spherical form. Drug release kinetics of the taxane-loaded nanoparticles demonstrates that more than 50% of the loaded taxane could be released upon the degradation of the nanoparticles after targeted delivery. The drug-loaded SC and GC nanoparticles exhibit high cytotoxicity towards AGS cancer cell lines and their antitumor activity is consequently enhanced when compared with free taxanes. More »»

2017

Journal Article

Rajitha Panonnummal, Dr. Raja Biswas, Dr. Sabitha M., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Methotrexate in the treatment of psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis: Mechanistic insights, current issues and novel delivery approaches”, Curr Pharm Des, 2017.[Abstract]


Our review is focused on the use of methotrexate in drug therapy of two autoimmune diseases, psoriasis and rheumatoid arthritis (RA). The article describes the pathogenesis of psoriasis and RA, the role of methotrexate in the treatment of these diseases with more focused review on the mechanism behind the clinical benefits of methotrexate therapy. Methotrexate due to its cytotoxic, anti-inflammatory and immune modulatory activities provides clinical benefits in the therapy of the selected diseases. This review also gives a panorama of the problems associated with the use of methotrexate in the selected diseases and the guidelines provided by FDA for its safe use. The novel colloidal drug delivery systems of methotrexate, with particular emphasis on advantages offered by liposomal formulation, niosomal gel, hydrogel, albumin conjugates, nanoparticles and nano structured lipid carriers in psoriasis and RA are also reviewed. It seemed that the use of newer colloidal carriers with improved skin permeability by minimizing its systemic availability will be a useful strategy to reduce the toxic effects of the drug in psoriatic patients. In rheumatoid arthritis patients, the development of newer therapeutic strategies using appropriate targeting ligands that specifically deliver the drug to the inflamed joint space will help to overcome its toxic effects by minimizing the systemic exposure.

More »»

2017

Journal Article

S. Vignesh, Deepthi, S., Sivashanmugam, A., Srinivasan, S., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Pro-angiogenic Molecules for Therapeutic Angiogenesis”, Curr Med Chem, 2017.[Abstract]


Angiogenesis, the formation of new functional blood vessels from the preexisting vasculature, is a highly orchestrated event, tightly controlled by a convoluted combination of biochemical and biomolecular signals. Therapeutic angiogenesis is a clinical approach to trigger neovascularization, which requires balance of multiple proangiogenic factors. It is of prime importance as it augments neovascularization, thereby enhancing tissue oxygen exchange which is crucial to several ischemia related pathophysiological conditions. Direct delivery of angiogenic growth factors, or agonists which stimulate tissues to release growth factors have been traditionally employed to stimulate neovascularization. In this review, we discuss the role of pro-angiogenic molecules such as growth factors, peptides for inducing therapeutic angiogenesis. Additionally, the review updates recent applications of new small molecules, inorganic nanomaterials & polysaccharides in promoting angiogenesis.

More »»

2016

Journal Article

P. Geetha, Sivaram, A. J., Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, and Dr. Gopi Mohan C., “Integration of in silico modeling, prediction by binding energy and experimental approach to study the amorphous chitin nanocarriers for cancer drug delivery”, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 142, pp. 240-249, 2016.[Abstract]


In silico modeling of the polymer-drug nanocarriers have now days became a powerful virtual screening tool for the optimization of new drug delivery systems. The interactions between amorphous chitin nanoparticles (AC-NPs) with three different types of anti-cancer drugs such as curcumin, docetaxel and 5-flurouracil were studied by integration of computational and experimental techniques. The drug entrapment and drug loading efficiency of these three drugs with AC-NPs were (98 ± 1%), (77 ± 2%), and (47 ± 12%), respectively. Further, cytotoxicity and cellular uptake studies of drug loaded AC-NPs on Gastric adenocarcinoma (AGS) cells showed enhanced drug uptake and cancer cell death. In silico binding energy (BE) between AC-NPs with these anti-cancer drugs were studied by molecular docking technique. Computational drug's BEs are in excellent agreement with experimental AC-NPs drug loading (R2 = 0.9323) and drug entrapment (R2 = 0.9741) efficiencies. Thus, present integrated study revealed significant insight on chemical nature, strength, and putative interacting sites of anti-cancer drugs with AC-NPs. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

More »»

2016

Journal Article

V. Dhanalakshmi, Nimal, T. R., Dr. Sabitha M., Dr. Raja Biswas, and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Skin and muscle permeating antibacterial nanoparticles for treating Staphylococcus aureus infected wounds”, Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part B Applied Biomaterials, 2016.[Abstract]


Majority of the chronic wounds are infected with bacteria like Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus). The deep tissue infections are difficult to treat using topical antibiotics, due to their poor tissue penetration. In order to treat S. aureus deep tissue infections we have developed an antibiotic delivery system using chitosan nanoparticles (CNPs). To enhance their tissue penetration these CNPs were further coated using lecithin (CLNPs). Antibiotic tigecycline was loaded into chitosan nanoparticles (tCNPs) and then coated with lecithin to generate lecithin coated tigecycline loaded chitosan nanoparticles (tCLNPs). The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using DLS, SEM, TEM and FT-IR. The prepared CNPs, tCNPs, CLNPs and tCLNPs have the size range of 85±10, 90±18, 188±5 and 235±20 nm, respectively. The tCLNPs shows more sustained release pattern of tigecycline. The antibacterial activity of the developed nanoparticles was confirmed against laboratory and clinical strains of S. aureus using in vitro and ex vivo experiments. The ex vivo skin and muscle permeation study ensures the enhanced delivery of tigecycline to the deeper tissue. The prepared nanoparticles were hemo-compatible and cyto-compatible. Our study suggests that the prepared tCLNPs can be effectively used for the treatment of S. aureus infected wounds. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

More »»

2016

Journal Article

S. Deepthi, Venkatesan, J., Kim, S. - K., Bumgardner, J. D., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “An overview of chitin or chitosan/nano ceramic composite scaffolds for bone tissue engineering”, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2016.[Abstract]


Chitin and chitosan based nanocomposite scaffolds have been widely used for bone tissue engineering. These chitin and chitosan based scaffolds were reinforced with nanocomponents viz Hydroxyapatite (HAp), Bioglass ceramic (BGC), Silicon dioxide (SiO2), Titanium dioxide (TiO2) and Zirconium oxide (ZrO2) to develop nanocomposite scaffolds. Plenty of works have been reported on the applications and characteristics of the nanoceramic composites however, compiling the work done in this field and presenting it in a single article is a thrust area. This review is written with an aim to fill this gap and focus on the preparations and applications of chitin or chitosan/nHAp, chitin or chitosan/nBGC, chitin or chitosan/nSiO2, chitin or chitosan/nTiO2 and chitin or chitosan/nZrO2 in the field of bone tissue engineering in detail. Many reports so far exemplify the importance of ceramics in bone regeneration. The effect of nanoceramics over native ceramics in developing composites, its role in osteogenesis etc. are the gist of this review. © 2016 Elsevier B.V. More »»

2016

Journal Article

Rajitha Panonnummal, Gopinath, D., Dr. Raja Biswas, Dr. Sabitha M., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Chitosan nanoparticles in drug therapy of infectious and inflammatory diseases”, Expert Opinion on Drug Delivery, vol. 13, no. 8, pp. 1177-1194, 2016.[Abstract]


Introduction: Chitosan, a polymer from the chitin family has diverse pharmaceutical and bio-medical utility because of its easy widespread availability, non-toxicity, biocompatibility, biodegradability, rich functionalities and high drug-loading capacity. Recent pharmaceutical research has examined the use of chitosan-based systems for drug delivery applications in various diseases. The availability of functional groups permits the conjugation of specific ligands and thus helps to target loaded drugs to the site of infection/inflammation. Slow biodegradation of chitosan permits controlled and sustained release of loaded moieties; reduces the dosing frequency and is useful for improving patient compliance in infectious drug therapy. The muco-adhesion offered by chitosan makes it an attractive candidate for anti-inflammatory drug delivery, where rapid clearance of the active moiety due to the increased tissue permeability is the major problem. The pH-dependent swelling and drug release properties of chitosan present a means of passive targeting of active drug moieties to inflammatory sites. Areas covered: Development of chitosan-based nanoparticulate systems for drug delivery applications is reviewed. The current state of chitosan-based nanosystems; with particular emphasis on drug therapy in inflammatory and infectious diseases is also covered. Expert opinion: The authors believe that chitosan-based nanosystems, due to the special and specific advantages, will have a promising role in the management of infectious and inflammatory diseases. © 2016 Informa UK Limited, trading as Taylor & Francis Group

More »»

2016

Journal Article

K. M. Sajesh, Kiran, K., Shantikumar V Nair, and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Sequential layer-by-layer electrospinning of nano SrCO3/PRP loaded PHBV fibrous scaffold for bone tissue engineering”, Composites Part B: Engineering, vol. 99, pp. 445-452, 2016.[Abstract]


Development of scaffolds with a blend of osteoinductive and osteoconductive properties is believed to be an effective approach towards bone regeneration. In our current research, a biodegradable Poly (3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) [PHBV]/nano strontium carbonate/Platelet Rich Plasma (PRP) composite scaffold was fabricated using sequential layer-by-layer electrospinning method. The synthesized nSrCO3 nanoparticles were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD), and further the developed electrospun scaffolds were taken for in vitro assessments. Fiber diameter of the composite fibrous scaffold ranges from 400 to 800 nm. Cell proliferation analysis signifies the role of PRP in the developed scaffold. Osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs was confirmed by measuring the ALP concentration and mineral deposition on the scaffolds and demonstrates considerable enhancement on the composite scaffold. These preliminary results demonstrate that the developed electrospun biocomposite scaffold could serve as a better platform for bone regeneration. More »»

2016

Journal Article

S. Deepthi and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Prolonged release of TGF-β from polyelectrolyte nanoparticle loaded macroporous chitin-poly(caprolactone) scaffold for chondrogenesis”, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, 2016.[Abstract]


Cartilage degeneration occurs when the catabolic factors overtakes the anabolic factors. The regeneration capability of damaged cartilage is poor due to its hypovascular and hypocellular tissue. Tissue engineering strategies aims in development of a suitable substrate that provide the required physical, chemical and biological cues to the proliferating cells to direct chondrogenesis. A macroporous polymeric blend scaffold of chitin and poly(caprolactone) (PCL) was fabricated by lyophilisation technique and characterized using Scanning Electron Microscope (SEM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) and Thermogravimetric/Differential thermal Analysis (TG/DTA). The effect of prolonged release of Transforming growth factor-β (TGF-β) was studied by encapsulating it in chondroitin sulphate nanoparticles (nCS) incorporated in chitin-PCL scaffold. Chondroitin sulphate nanoparticles containing TGF-β (TGF-β-nCS) was developed by polyelectrolyte crosslinking using chitosan. Characterization of TGF-β-nCS by Dynamic Light Scattering particle sizer and SEM showed a 230. ±. 20. nm sized spherical particles. Swelling and degradation studies of the composite scaffold showed its stability. Protein adsorption was enhanced in nanoparticle containing scaffold. The effect of TGF-β was well addressed by the increased attachment and proliferation of rabbit adipose derived mesenchymal stem cells (rASCs). The chondrogenic potential of rASCs in the presence of TGF-β releasing composite scaffold showed an increased proteoglycan deposition. These studies highlight the positive effects of chitin-PCL-TGF-β-nCS scaffold for cartilage regeneration. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

More »»

2016

Journal Article

S. Deepthi, Gafoor, A. A. Abdul, Sivashanmugam, A., Shantikumar V Nair, and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Nanostrontium ranelate incorporated injectable hydrogel enhanced matrix production supporting chondrogenesis: In vitro”, Journal of Materials Chemistry B, vol. 4, pp. 4092-4103, 2016.[Abstract]


An injectable hydrogel, with the advantage of adaptability to defect sites, patient compliance, controlled flowability and high water uptake capability, was explored as a prototype for cartilage tissue regeneration. Chitosan and fibrin are natural biomaterials that are biocompatible, biodegradable, resemble the ECM of the tissues and contain cell adhesion sites thereby providing a support for cell growth. In this study strontium ranelate, a drug recently studied to enhance cartilage regeneration, was encapsulated in chitosan nanoparticles to provide sustained delivery of the drug content within the composite gel (chitosan/alginate/fibrin hydrogel). The developed nanocomposite gel was characterized using SEM, EDS and FTIR. The particle size of the strontium ranelate loaded chitosan nanoparticles was found to be 160 ± 30 nm. The encapsulation and loading efficiency values of strontium ranelate were found to be 40 ± 10% and 36 ± 2% respectively. Rheological data showed a storage modulus of 5.514 ± 0.102 kPa with thermal stability over the studied temperature range, and the gel properties could be restored within 10 s after the application of a high shear rate. The cytocompatibility and chondrogenic potential was analyzed using human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) to evaluate the applicability of the developed hydrogel for cartilage regeneration. hMSCs were found to be viable in the developed hydrogels and chondrogenic differentiation of hMSCs was observed which was confirmed with enhanced proteoglycan and collagen synthesis. These results indicated that the developed injectable nanocomposite gel would be a suitable system for cartilage regeneration. © 2016 The Royal Society of Chemistry.

More »»

2016

Journal Article

V. M Priya, Dr. Sabitha M., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Colloidal chitin nanogels: A plethora of applications under one shell.”, Carbohydr Polym, vol. 136, pp. 609-17, 2016.[Abstract]


Chitin nanogels (CNGs) are a relatively new class of natural polymeric nanomaterials which have a large potential in the field of drug delivery and nanotherapeutics. These nanogels being very biocompatible are non-toxic when internalized by cells. In this review various properties, preparation techniques and applications of CNGs have been described. CNGs because of their nano-size possess certain unique properties which enable them to be used in a number of biomedical applications. CNGs are prepared by simple regeneration technique without using any cross-linkers. Various polymers, drugs and fluorescent dyes can be blended or incorporated or labelled with the chitin hydrogel network. Drugs and molecules encapsulated within CNGs can be used for targeted delivery, in vivo monitoring or even for therapeutic purposes. Here various applications of CNGs in the field of drug delivery, imaging, sensing and therapeutics have been discussed.

More »»
PDF icon colloidal-chitin-nanogels-a-plethora-of-applications-under-one-shell.pdf

2016

Journal Article

G. Divya, Rajitha Panonnummal, Gupta, S., Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, and Dr. Sabitha M., “Acitretin and aloe-emodin loaded chitin nanogel for the treatment of psoriasis.”, Eur J Pharm Biopharm, vol. 107, pp. 97-109, 2016.[Abstract]


The present study focuses on the development of an effective topical nanogel formulation of two anti-psoriatic drugs; Acitretin (Act) and Aloe-emodin (AE) using natural polymer chitin. Simple regeneration chemistry was used to prepare Chitin Nanogel Systems (CNGs). The developed control chitin (CNGs) nanogels, acitretin loaded chitin nanogels (ActCNGs) and aloe-emodin loaded chitin nanogels (AECNGs) were characterized by DLS, SEM, FTIR, XRD and TG-DTA. The systems were found to be spherical in shape with a size range of 98±10, 138±8 and 238±6nm having zeta potential values of +28±3, +27±3 and +25±6mV for CNGs, ActCNGs and AECNGs respectively. The in vitro haemolysis assay revealed that all the nanogel systems are blood compatible. The systems exhibited higher swelling and release at acidic pH. The ex vivo skin permeation studies using porcine skin confirmed the higher deposition of the systems at epidermal and dermal layers, which was confirmed further by fluorescent imaging. The in vivo anti-psoriatic activity study using Perry's mouse tail model and skin safety studies confirmed the potential benefit of the system for topical delivery of acitretin and aloe-emodin in psoriasis.

More »»
PDF icon acitretin-and-aloe-emodin-loaded-chitin-nanogel-for-the-treatment-of-psoriasis.pdf

2016

Journal Article

R. Vilangattu Kunjikuttan, Jayasree, A., Dr. Raja Biswas, and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Recent developments in drug-eluting dressings for the treatment of chronic wounds.”, Expert Opin Drug Deliv, vol. 13, no. 12, pp. 1645-1647, 2016.

2016

Journal Article

S. Deepthi, M Sundaram, N., J Kadavan, D., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Layered chitosan-collagen hydrogel/aligned PLLA nanofiber construct for flexor tendon regeneration.”, Carbohydr Polym, vol. 153, pp. 492-500, 2016.[Abstract]


The aim of our study was to develop a tendon construct of electrospun aligned poly (l-lactic acid) (PLLA) nanofibers, to mimic the aligned collagen fiber bundles and layering PLLA fibers with chitosan-collagen hydrogel, to mimic the glycosaminoglycans of sheath ECM for tendon regeneration. The hydrogel coated electrospun membrane was rolled and an outer coating of alginate gel was given to prevent peritendinous adhesion. The developed constructs were characterized by SEM, FT-IR and tensile testing. Protein adsorption studies showed lower protein adsorption on coated scaffolds compared to uncoated scaffolds. The samples were proven to be non-toxic to tenocytes. The chitosan-collagen/PLLA uncoated scaffolds and alginate gel coated chitosan-collagen/PLLA scaffolds showed good cell proliferation. The tenocytes showed good attachment and spreading on the scaffolds. This study indicated that the developed chitosan-collagen/PLLA/alginate scaffold would be suitable for flexor tendon regeneration. More »»

2016

Journal Article

Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Biological macromolecules for tissue regeneration.”, Int J Biol Macromol, vol. 93, no. Pt B, p. 1337, 2016.

2015

Journal Article

A. Mohandas, Anisha, B. S., Chennazhi, K. P., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Chitosan-hyaluronic acid/VEGF loaded fibrin nanoparticles composite sponges for enhancing angiogenesis in wounds”, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 127, pp. 105-113, 2015.[Abstract]


Reduced levels of endogenous growth factors and diminished angiogenesis are contributory factors for impaired wound healing in diabetic patients. Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is the most potent angiogenic growth factor which stimulates multiple phases of wound healing angiogenesis and thereby accelerates healing. The aim of this work was to develop chitosan-hyaluronic acid composite sponge incorporated with fibrin nanoparticles loaded with VEGF as a wound dressing for diabetic wounds. VEGF loaded fibrin nanoparticles (150-180. nm) were prepared and characterized which were then incorporated to the composite sponge. The prepared sponges were characterized by SEM and FT-IR. Porosity, swelling, biodegradation, mechanical properties and haemostatic potential of the sponges were also studied. Release of VEGF from the composite sponges was evaluated using ELISA kit. More than 60% of the loaded VEGF was released in three days. Cell viability and attachment studies of the composite sponges were evaluated using human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells and human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs). HUVECs seeded on VEGF containing sponges showed capillary like tube formation which was absent in control sponges. The results suggest that the prepared chitosan-hyaluronic acid/VEGF loaded nanofibrin composite sponges (CHVFS) have potential to induce angiogenesis in wound healing.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

A. Sivashanmugam, R. Kumar, A., M. Priya, V., Nair, S. V., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “An overview of injectable polymeric hydrogels for tissue engineering”, European Polymer Journal, 2015.[Abstract]


The desire and need to minimize traditional open surgeries is gearing up as it could reduce the healthcare expenses and improve the recovery time for the patients. Minimal invasive procedures using endoscopes, catheters and needles have been developed considerably in the last few decades. In the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine, there is a need for advancement over the conventional scaffolds and pre-formed hydrogels. In this scenario, injectable hydrogels have gained wider appreciation among the researchers, as they can be used in minimally invasive surgical procedures. Injectable gels with their ease of handling, complete filling of the defect area and good permeability have emerged as promising biomaterials. The system can effectively deliver a wide array of therapeutic agents like drugs, growth factors, fillers and even cells. This review provides an overview of the recent trends in the preparation of injectable hydrogels, along with key factors to be kept in balance for designing an effective injectable hydrogel system. Further, we have summarized the application of injectable hydrogels in adipose, bone, cartilage, intervertebral discs and muscle tissue engineering. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

A. Anitha, Maya, S., Sivaram, A. J., Dr. Ullas Mony, and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Combinatorial nanomedicines for colon cancer therapy”, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology, 2015.[Abstract]


<p>Colon cancer is one of the major causes of cancer deaths worldwide. Even after surgical resection and aggressive chemotherapy, 50% of colorectal carcinoma patients develop recurrent disease. Thus, the rationale of developing new therapeutic approaches to improve the current chemotherapeutic regimen would be highly recommended. There are reports on the effectiveness of combination chemotherapy in colon cancer and it has been practiced in clinics for long time. These approaches are associated with toxic side effects. Later, the drug delivery research had shown the potential of nanoencapsulation techniques and active targeting as an effective method to improve the effectiveness of chemotherapy with less toxicity. This current focus article provides a brief analysis of the ongoing research in the colon cancer area using the combinatorial nanomedicines and its outcome. © 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.</p>

More »»

2015

Journal Article

A. Mohandas, Nimal, T. R., Das, V., Dr. Sahadev Shankarappa, Dr. Raja Biswas, and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Drug loaded bi-layered sponge for wound management in hyperfibrinolytic conditions”, Journal of Materials Chemistry B, vol. 3, pp. 5795-5805, 2015.[Abstract]


Excessive bleeding due to premature clot lysis and secondary bacterial wound infection are two significant problems that contribute to increased morbidity in patients with hyperfibrinolytic conditions. In this study, we have developed a bi-layered sponge that promotes fibrin clot stability and prevents secondary bacterial wound infections. Using the technique of freeze-drying, a bi-layer matrix consisting of hyaluronic acid (HA) containing aminocaproic acid (amicar) and chitosan containing tetracycline loaded O-carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles (Tet-O-CMC NPs) were produced. We hypothesized that the top chitosan layer with Tet-O-CMC NPs will prevent wound infection and concomitantly act as a matrix for cellular migration and subsequent wound healing, while the amicar-containing layer would promote clot stability. Tet-O-CMC NPs and bi-layer sponges were characterized using Dynamic Light Scattering (DLS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM) and Fourier Transform Infra Red (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Physiochemical characterization such as porosity, swelling and mechanical testing was performed. The drug release study shows that the bi-layered sponge demonstrates a robust burst release of amicar and a sustained release of tetracycline. The ex vivo muscle permeation study indicated that Tet-O-CMC NPs have enhanced tissue permeation compared to free Tet. In vitro antibacterial activity of the bi-layer sponge towards laboratory and clinical strains of Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli was proved. The ex vivo bacterial sensitivity study using porcine muscles confirmed the antibacterial activity, while the cell viability study using human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells revealed its biocompatible nature. The in vitro antifibrinolytic study shows that the bi-layered sponge with amicar showed significant protection against streptokinase induced clot lysis. These studies suggest that the prepared amicar and tetracycline loaded chitosan-HA bi-layered sponge can be used effectively to promote better wound healing by simultaneously preventing bacterial infection, and enhancing clot stability. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

Dr. Manitha B. Nair, Baranwal, G., Vijayan, P., Keyan, K. S., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Composite hydrogel of chitosan-poly(hydroxybutyrate-co-valerate) with chondroitin sulfate nanoparticles for nucleus pulposus tissue engineering”, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 136, pp. 84-92, 2015.[Abstract]


Intervertebral disc degeneration, occurring mainly in nucleus pulposus (NP), is a leading cause of low back pain. In seeking to mitigate this condition, investigators in the field of NP tissue engineering have increasingly studied the use of hydrogels. However, these hydrogels should possess appropriate mechanical strength and swelling pressure, and concurrently support the proliferation of chondrocyte-like cells. The objective of this study was to develop and validate a composite hydrogel for NP tissue engineering, made of chitosan-poly(hydroxybutyrate- co-valerate) (CP) with chondroitin sulfate (CS) nanoparticles, without using a cross linker. The water uptake ability, as well as the viscoelastic properties of this composite hydrogel, was similar to native tissue, as reflected in the complex shear modulus and stress relaxation values. The hydrogel could withstand varying stress corresponding to daily activities like lying down (0.01. MPa), sitting (0.5. MPa) and standing (1.0. MPa) under dynamic conditions. The hydrogels were stable in PBS for 2 weeks and its stiffness, elastic and viscous modulus did not alter significantly during this period. Both CP and CP-CS hydrogels could assist the viability and adhesion of adipose derived rat mesenchymal stem cells (ADMSCs). The viability and chondrogenic differentiation of MSCs was significantly enhanced in presence of CS nanoparticles. Thus, CS nanoparticles-incorporated chitosan-PHBV hydrogels offer great potential for NP tissue engineering. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.

More »»

2015

Journal Article

K. T. Smitha, Nisha, N., Maya, S., Dr. Raja Biswas, and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Delivery of rifampicin-chitin nanoparticles into the intracellular compartment of polymorphonuclear leukocytes”, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 74, pp. 36 - 43, 2015.[Abstract]


Abstract Polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMNs) provide the primary host defence against invading pathogens by producing reactive oxygen species (ROS) and microbicidal products. However, few pathogens can survive for a prolonged period of time within the PMNs. Additionally their intracellular lifestyle within the \{PMNs\} protect themselves from the additional lethal action of host immune systems such as antibodies and complements. Antibiotic delivery into the intracellular compartments of \{PMNs\} is a major challenge in the field of infectious diseases. In order to deliver antibiotics within the \{PMNs\} and for the better treatment of intracellular bacterial infections we synthesized rifampicin (RIF) loaded amorphous chitin nanoparticles (RIF-ACNPs) of 350 ± 50 nm in diameter. RIF-ACNPs nanoparticles are found to be non-hemolytic and non-toxic against a variety of host cells. The release of rifampicin from the prepared nanoparticles was ∼60% in 24 h, followed by a sustained pattern till 72 h. The RIF-ACNPs nanoparticles showed 5–6 fold enhanced delivery of \{RIF\} into the intracellular compartments of PMNs. The RIF-ACNPs showed anti-microbial activity against Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus and a variety of other bacteria. In summary, our results suggest that RIF-ACNPs could be used to treat a variety of intracellular bacterial infections. More »»

2014

Journal Article

D. Narayanan, Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, and Chennazhi, K. P., “Versatile carboxymethyl chitin and chitosan nanomaterials: A review”, Wiley Interdisciplinary Reviews: Nanomedicine and Nanobiotechnology, vol. 6, pp. 574-598, 2014.[Abstract]


<p>Biocompatibility, biodegradability, and low cost of chitin and chitosan have drawn immense attention in many fields including medicine, bioinspired material science, pharmaceuticals, and agriculture. Their handling and processing are difficult owing to its insolubility in neutral aqueous solution or organic solvents. One of the methods used to improve the solubility characteristics of chitin and chitosan is chemical modification. Introducing a carboxymethyl group is the most advantageous method of increasing the solubility of chitosan at neutral and alkaline pH. Carboxymethyl chitin (CMC) and carboxymethyl chitosan (CMCS) are water soluble derivatives formed by introducing CH2COOH function into the polymer which endows it with better biological properties. The functional group makes CMC/CMCS nanoparticles (NPs) efficient vehicles for the delivery of DNA, proteins, and drugs. This review provides an overview of the characteristics of CMC/CMCS NPs as well as fulfills the task of describing and discussing its important roles primarily in cancer nanomedicine detailing the targeted drug delivery aspect. The application of these NPs in imaging, agriculture, and textiles has also been highlighted. The review also elaborates the advantages of using the CMC and CMCS NPs for drug and gene delivery.</p>

More »»

2014

Journal Article

D. Sankar, Shalumon, K. T., Chennazhi, K. P., Menon, D., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Surface plasma treatment of poly(caprolactone) micro, nano, and multiscale fibrous scaffolds for enhanced osteoconductivity”, Tissue Engineering - Part A, vol. 20, pp. 1689-1702, 2014.[Abstract]


In this study, poly(caprolactone) (PCL) was electrospun to nano, micro, and multiscale (micro-nano) fibers, which were then subjected to low pressure argon and nitrogen plasma treatment. The electrospun fibers contain microfibers of diameter 8-10?μm and nanofibers of diameter 200-300?nm. Characterization of the plasma-treated fibers showed that treatment using less oxidizing gas like nitrogen and inert gas like argon functionalize the surface with polar groups that significantly modify the properties of the scaffold. Highly hydrophobic PCL fibrous scaffolds were rendered hydrophilic, with significantly improved biomineralization after the plasma treatment. While plasma treatment on micro and multiscale fibers enhanced their protein adsorption, cell attachment, spreading, elongation, and proliferation, nanofibers showed remarkably improved cell attachment. The applicability of plasma-treated electrospun fibers for differentiation of mesenchymal stem cell toward osteogenic lineage was also studied. Accelerated differentiation toward osteoblast lineage, with maximum alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity in 14 days was achieved in plasma-treated fibers. Another remarkable outcome was the enhanced ALP activity of the microfibers after plasma treatment, compared with multiscale and nanofibers. Alizarin red staining further confirmed the mineralization of the plasma-treated scaffolds, indicative of maturation of the differentiated cells. This work thus concentrates on harnessing the potential of plasma treatment, for improving the osteoconductivity of fibrous scaffolds, which could be used for bone tissue engineering/regenerative medicine. © Copyright 2014, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. 2014.

More »»

2014

Journal Article

A. Anitha, Sreeranganathan, M., Chennazhi, K. P., Lakshmanan, V. - K., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “In vitro combinatorial anticancer effects of 5-fluorouracil and curcumin loaded N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles toward colon cancer and in vivo pharmacokinetic studies”, European Journal of Pharmaceutics and Biopharmaceutics, 2014.[Abstract]


Colon cancer is the third most leading causes of death due to cancer worldwide and the chemo drug 5-fluorouracil's (5-FU) applicability is limited due to its non-specificity, low bioavailability and overdose. The efficacy of 5-FU in colon cancer chemo treatment could be improved by nanoencapsulation and combinatorial approach. In the present study curcumin (CUR), a known anticancer phytochemical, was used in combination with 5-FU and the work focuses on the development of a combinatorial nanomedicine based on 5-FU and CUR in N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles (N,O-CMC NPs). The developed 5-FU-N,O-CMC NPs and CUR-N,O-CMC NPs were found to be blood compatible. The in vitro drug release profile in pH 4.5 and 7.4 showed a sustained release profile over a period of 4 days. The combined exposure of the nanoformulations in colon cancer cells (HT 29) proved the enhanced anticancer effects. In addition, the in vivo pharmacokinetic data in mouse model revealed the improved plasma concentrations of 5-FU and CUR which prolonged up to 72 h unlike the bare drugs. In conclusion, the 5-FU and CUR released from the N,O-CMC NPs produced enhanced anticancer effects in vitro and improved plasma concentrations under in vivo conditions. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

More »»

2014

Journal Article

B. M. Alphonsa, Kumar, P. T. Sudheesh, Praveen, G., Dr. Raja Biswas, Chennazhi, K. P., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Antimicrobial drugs encapsulated in fibrin nanoparticles for treating microbial infested wounds”, Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 31, pp. 1338-1351, 2014.[Abstract]


Purpose: In vitro evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal drugs encapsulated fibrin nanoparticles to prove their potential prospect of using these nanocomponent for effective treatment of microbial infested wounds. Methods: Surfactant-free oil-in-water emulsification-diffusion method was adopted to encapsulate 1 mg/ml each of antimicrobial drugs (Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole) in 4 ml of aqueous fibrinogen suspension and subsequent thrombin mediated cross linking to synthesize drug loaded fibrin nanoparticles. Results: Ciprofloxacin loaded fibrin nanoparticles (CFNPs) showed size range of 253∈±∈6 nm whereas that of Fluconazole loaded fibrin nanoparticles (FFNPs) was 260∈±∈10 nm. Physico chemical characterizations revealed the firm integration of antimicrobial drugs within fibrin nanoparticles. Drug release studies performed at physiological pH 7.4 showed a release of 16% ciprofloxacin and 8% of fluconazole while as the release of ciprofloxacin at alkaline pH 8.5, was 48% and that of fluconazole was 37%. The antimicrobial activity evaluations of both drug loaded systems independently showed good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E.coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and antifungal activity against Candida albicans (C. albicans). The in vitro toxicity of the prepared drug loaded nanoparticles were further analyzed using Human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF) and showed adequate cell viability. Conclusion: The efficacies of both CFNPs and FFNPs for sustained delivery of encapsulated anti microbial drugs were evaluated in vitro suggesting its potential use for treating microbial infested wounds (diabetic foot ulcer). © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

More »»

2014

Journal Article

A. Anitha, Deepa, N., Chennazhi, K. P., Lakshmanan, V. - K., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Combinatorial anticancer effects of curcumin and 5-fluorouracil loaded thiolated chitosan nanoparticles towards colon cancer treatment”, Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - General Subjects, vol. 1840, pp. 2730-2743, 2014.[Abstract]


Background Evaluation of the combinatorial anticancer effects of curcumin/5-fluorouracil loaded thiolated chitosan nanoparticles (CRC-TCS-NPs/5-FU-TCS-NPs) on colon cancer cells and the analysis of pharmacokinetics and biodistribution of CRC-TCS-NPs/5-FU-TCS-NPs in a mouse model. Methods CRC-TCS-NPs/5-FU-TCS-NPs were developed by ionic cross-linking. The in vitro combinatorial anticancer effect of the nanomedicine was proven by different assays. Further the pharmacokinetics and biodistribution analyses were performed in Swiss Albino mouse using HPLC. Results The 5-FU-TCS-NPs (size: 150 ± 40 nm, zeta potential: + 48.2 ± 5 mV) and CRC-TCS-NPs (size: 150 ± 20 nm, zeta potential: + 35.7 ± 3 mV) were proven to be compatible with blood. The in vitro drug release studies at pH 4.5 and 7.4 showed a sustained release profile over a period of 4 days, where both the systems exhibited a higher release in acidic pH. The in vitro combinatorial anticancer effects in colon cancer (HT29) cells using MTT, live/dead, mitochondrial membrane potential and cell cycle analysis measurements confirmed the enhanced anticancer effects (2.5 to 3 fold). The pharmacokinetic studies confirmed the improved plasma concentrations of 5-FU and CRC up to 72 h, unlike bare CRC and 5-FU. Conclusions To conclude, the combination of 5-FU-TCS-NPs and CRC-TCS-NPs showed enhanced anticancer effects on colon cancer cells in vitro and improved the bioavailability of the drugs in vivo. General significance The enhanced anticancer effects of combinatorial nanomedicine are advantageous in terms of reduction in the dosage of 5-FU, thereby improving the chemotherapeutic efficacy and patient compliance of colorectal cancer cases. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

A. A. Madhavan, Mohandas, A., Licciulli, A., Sanosh, K. P., Praveen, P., Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, Nair, S. V., Nair, A. S., and Balakrishnan, A., “Electrospun continuous nanofibers based on a TiO2-ZnO-graphene composite”, RSC Advances, vol. 3, pp. 25312-25316, 2013.[Abstract]


The present study provides the first reports on the electrospinning of TiO2-ZnO-graphene composite nanofibers for photovoltaic and biomedical applications. These nanofibers were characterized by spectroscopic and microscopic techniques to evaluate the morphologies and phases. The fiber diameter was found to be ∼210 nm. The graphene content was maintained in the range of 0.2-0.7 weight percent. It was observed that when the graphene content was increased beyond 0.7 weight percent, the continuous fiber morphology was lost. Raman spectroscopy was used to confirm the presence of graphene. Conductivity studies showed a ∼9 times increase in conductance values for the TiO2-ZnO-graphene system as compared to TiO2-ZnO nanofibers. Employing these TiO2-ZnO-graphene fiber composites as photoanodes in dye sensitized solar cells, an efficiency of 3.7% was attained. Antibacterial studies performed on two bacterial strains, namely E.coli and S. aureus, have shown that these composite fibers can be used effectively for antibacterial wound dressing applications. This journal is © The Royal Society of Chemistry.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

B. M. Alphonsa, Kumar, P. T. Sudheesh, Praveen, G., Dr. Raja Biswas, Chennazhi, K. P., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Antimicrobial Drugs Encapsulated in Fibrin Nanoparticles for Treating Microbial Infested Wounds”, Pharmaceutical Research, pp. 1-14, 2013.[Abstract]


Purpose: In vitro evaluation of antibacterial and antifungal drugs encapsulated fibrin nanoparticles to prove their potential prospect of using these nanocomponent for effective treatment of microbial infested wounds. Methods: Surfactant-free oil-in-water emulsification-diffusion method was adopted to encapsulate 1 mg/ml each of antimicrobial drugs (Ciprofloxacin and Fluconazole) in 4 ml of aqueous fibrinogen suspension and subsequent thrombin mediated cross linking to synthesize drug loaded fibrin nanoparticles. Results: Ciprofloxacin loaded fibrin nanoparticles (CFNPs) showed size range of 253 ± 6 nm whereas that of Fluconazole loaded fibrin nanoparticles (FFNPs) was 260 ± 10 nm. Physico chemical characterizations revealed the firm integration of antimicrobial drugs within fibrin nanoparticles. Drug release studies performed at physiological pH 7.4 showed a release of 16% ciprofloxacin and 8% of fluconazole while as the release of ciprofloxacin at alkaline pH 8.5, was 48% and that of fluconazole was 37%. The antimicrobial activity evaluations of both drug loaded systems independently showed good antibacterial activity against Escherichia coli (E.coli), Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) and antifungal activity against Candida albicans (C. albicans). The in vitro toxicity of the prepared drug loaded nanoparticles were further analyzed using Human dermal fibroblast cells (HDF) and showed adequate cell viability. Conclusion: The efficacies of both CFNPs and FFNPs for sustained delivery of encapsulated anti microbial drugs were evaluated in vitro suggesting its potential use for treating microbial infested wounds (diabetic foot ulcer). © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

D. Narayanan, Anitha, A., Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, and Chennazhi, K. P., “In vitro and in vivo evaluation of osteoporosis therapeutic peptide PTH 1-34 loaded PEGylated chitosan nanoparticles”, Molecular Pharmaceutics, vol. 10, pp. 4159-4167, 2013.[Abstract]


Oral formulation of human parathyroid hormone 1-34 (PTH 1-34) is an alternative patient compliant route in treating osteoporosis. PTH 1-34 loaded chitosan nanoparticles were PEGylated (PEG-CS-PTH NPs) and characterized by DLS, SEM, TEM and FTIR. PEG-CS-PTH NP aggregates of 200-250 nm which in turn comprised 20 nm individual nanoparticles were observed in SEM and TEM images respectively. The PEG-CS-PTH NP with 40% encapsulation efficiency was subjected to an in vitro release in simulated rat body fluids. PEG-CS-PTH NP treated human primary osteoblast cells, upon PTH 1-34 receptor activation, produced second messenger-cAMP, which downstream stimulated intracellular calcium uptake, production of bone specific alkaline phosphatase, osteocalcin etc., which substantiates the anabolic effect of the peptide. PEG-CS-PTH NPs showed an oral bioavailability of 100-160 pg/mL PTH 1-34 throughout 48 h, which is remarkable compared to the bare PTH 1-34 and CS-PTH NPs. The NIR image of gastrointestinal transit of ICG conjugated PEG-CS-PTH NPs supports this significant finding. © 2013 American Chemical Society.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

B. S. Anisha, Dr. Raja Biswas, Chennazhi, K. P., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Chitosan-hyaluronic acid/nano silver composite sponges for drug resistant bacteria infected diabetic wounds”, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 62, pp. 310-320, 2013.[Abstract]


The aim of this work was to develop an antimicrobial sponge composed of chitosan, hyaluronic acid (HA) and nano silver (nAg) as a wound dressing for diabetic foot ulcers (DFU) infected with drug resistant bacteria. nAg (5-20. nm) was prepared and characterized. The nanocomposite sponges were prepared by homogenous mixing of chitosan, HA and nAg followed by freeze drying to obtain a flexible and porous structure. The prepared sponges were characterized using SEM and FT-IR. The porosity, swelling, biodegradation and haemostatic potential of the sponges were also studied. Antibacterial activity of the prepared sponges was analysed using Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA), Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Klebsiella pneumonia. Chitosan-HA/nAg composite sponges showed potent antimicrobial property against the tested organisms. Sponges containing higher nAg (0.005%, 0.01% and 0.02%) concentrations showed antibacterial activity against MRSA. Cytotoxicity and cell attachment studies were done using human dermal fibroblast cells. The nanocomposite sponges showed a nAg concentration dependent toxicity towards fibroblast cells. Our results suggest that this nanocomposite sponges could be used as a potential material for wound dressing for DFU infected with antibiotic resistant bacteria if the optimal concentration of nAg exhibiting antibacterial action with least toxicity towards mammalian cells is identified. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

T. R. Arunraj, N. Rejinold, S., N. Kumar, A., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Doxorubicin-chitin-poly(caprolactone) composite nanogel for drug delivery”, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 62, pp. 35-43, 2013.[Abstract]


In this work, we developed a pH responsive chitin-poly(caprolactone) composite nanogels (chitin-PCL CNGs) system for non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). A hydrophilic drug, doxorubicin (Dox) was loaded in Chitin-PCL CNGs (Dox-chitin-PCL CNGs). Both control and drug loaded systems were analyzed by DLS, SEM, FTIR and TG/DTA. The size ranges of the control composite nanogels and their drug loaded counterparts were found to be 70. ±. 20 and 240. ±. 20. nm, respectively. The control chitin-PCL CNGs and Dox-chitin-PCL CNGs showed higher swelling and degradation in acidic pH. Drug entrapment efficiency and in-vitro drug release studies were carried out and showed a higher drug release at acidic pH compared to neutral pH. Cellular internalization of the nanogel systems was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy. Dox-Chitin-PCL CNGs showed dose dependent cytotoxicity toward A549 (adenocarcinomic human alveolar basal epithelial cells) cancer cells. Furthermore, the results of in-vitro hemolytic assay and coagulation assay substantiate the blood compatibility of the system. These results indicate that chitin-PCL CNGs is a novel carrier for delivery of anticancer drugs. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

A. N. Kumar, N. Rejinold, S., Anjali, P., Balakrishnan, A., Dr. Raja Biswas, and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Preparation of chitin nanogels containing nickel nanoparticles”, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 97, pp. 469-474, 2013.[Abstract]


In this work, we developed 120-150 nm sized nickel nanoparticles loaded chitin nanogels (Ni-Chitin NGs) by regeneration chemistry approach to investigate and determine its cytocompatibility and antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus. The nickel nanoparticles were prepared by hydrothermal method. The prepared Ni-Chitin NGs were well characterized by SEM, FTIR, TG/DTA/DTG and XRD and the in vitro cytocompatibility was tested on A549 and L929 cells which showed that they are completely non-toxic. Ni-Chitin NGs showed better toxicity to the bacterial strains when compared to previous study with other nanoparticles using serial dilution method. The rhodamine labeled-Ni-Chitin NGs showed cellular localization on both L929 and A549 cells without perturbing their cellular constituents. These studies showed that the Ni-Chitin NGs could be used for various applications in biomedical filed. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. More »»

2013

Journal Article

P. T. S. Kumar, Ramya, C., Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, Nair, S. K. V., and Lakshmanan, V. - K., “Drug delivery and tissue engineering applications of biocompatible pectin-chitin/nano CaCO3 composite scaffolds”, Colloids and Surfaces B: Biointerfaces, vol. 106, pp. 109-116, 2013.[Abstract]


In this work, we have developed a nanocomposite scaffold using a mixture of pectin, chitin and nano CaCO3 using the technique of lyophilization, with an intended use towards biomedical applications such as tissue engineering and drug delivery. The prepared composite scaffold was characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). In addition, swelling, degradation and biomineralization capability of the composite scaffold was evaluated. The developed composite scaffold showed controlled swelling and degradation in comparison with the control scaffold. Cytocompatibility evaluation of the scaffold was tested on NIH3T3, L929 and human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells, showed negligible toxicity towards cells. Cell attachment and proliferation studies were also conducted using these cells, which showed that cells attached onto the scaffolds and started to proliferate after 48h of incubation. Further, drug delivery through the scaffold was examined using a bisphosphonate called Fosamax. These results suggest that the developed composite scaffold possess the essential requisites for their application in the fields of tissue engineering and drug delivery. © 2013 Elsevier B.V.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

K. T. Shalumon, Sowmya, S., Sathish, D., Chennazhi, K. P., Nair, S. V., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Effect of incorporation of nanoscale bioactive glass and hydroxyapatite in PCL/chitosan nanofibers for bone and periodontal tissue engineering”, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, vol. 9, pp. 430-440, 2013.[Abstract]


A biomimetic scaffold which can very closely mimic the extracellular matrix of the bone was fabricated by incorporating nano-bioceramic particles such as nano bioglass (nBG) and nano hydroxyapatite (nHAp) within electrospun nanofibrous scaffold. A comparative study between nHAp incorporated poly(caprolactone) (PCL)-chitosan (CS) and nBG incorporated PCL-CS nanofibrous scaffolds was carried out and their feasibility in tissue engineering was investigated. All the samples were optimized to obtain fibers of similar diameter from 100-200 nm for the ease of comparison between the samples. Protein adsorption studies showed that PCL-CS incorporated with 3 wt% nHAp and 3 wt% nBG adsorbed more proteins on their surface than other samples. Cell attachment and proliferation studies using human periodontal ligament fibroblast cells (hPLFs) and osteoblast like cells (MG-63 cell lines) showed that nBG incorporated samples are slightly superior to nHAp incorporated counterparts. Cell viability test using alamar blue assay and live/dead staining confirms that the scaffolds are cytocompatible. ALP activity confirmed the osteoblastic behavior of hPDLFs. Also the presence of nHAp and nBG enhanced the ALP activity of hPDLF on the PCH3 and PCB3 scaffolds. These studies indicate that nBG incorporated electrospun scaffolds are comparatively better candidates for orthopedic and periodontal tissue engineering applications. Copyright © 2013 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

A. Anitha, Uthaman, S., Shantikumar V. Nair, Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, and Lakshmanan, V. - K., “Enhanced delivery system of flutamide loaded chitosan-dextran sulphate nanoparticles for prostate cancer”, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, vol. 9, pp. 335-347, 2013.[Abstract]


In the current work, a sustained drug delivery system of flutamide (FLT) was developed using chitosan (CS) and dextran sulphate (DS) nanoparticles and were characterized using different techniques. The prepared nanoparticles showed a size of 80-120 nm with an entrapment efficiency of 55±6.95%. In addition, blood compatibility, in vitro cytotoxicity, drug release and cellular uptake studies were also carried out. The drug release studies showed a sustained and pH dependent release pattern as a result, after 120 h about 66% drug release occurred at pH 7.4 and 78% release occurred in acidic pH. MTT (3-(4,5-Dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide) and LDH (lactate dehydrogenase) experiments proved the preferential toxicity of drug loaded nanoparticles towards prostate cancer cells (PC3) unlike in normal cells, mouse fibroblast cells (L929). The cell death mechanism of drug loaded nanoparticles for a concentration of 50 and 75 nM showed 28±2 and 35.2±4% apoptosis in samples treated with the PC3 cells after 24 h. Fluorescent microscopic imaging and flow cytometry confirmed the preferential uptake of the nanoparticles (NPs) in the prostate cancer cells (PC3) unlike in normal (L929) cells. Hence the developed FLT loaded CS-DS NPs could be used as a promising system for controlled delivery in prostate cancer. Copyright © 2013 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

B. S. Anisha, Sankar, D., Mohandas, A., Chennazhi, K. P., Nair, S. V., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Chitosan-hyaluronan/nano chondroitin sulfate ternary composite sponges for medical use”, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 92, pp. 1470-1476, 2013.[Abstract]


In this work chitosan-hyaluronan composite sponge incorporated with chondroitin sulfate nanoparticle (nCS) was developed. The fabrication of hydrogel was based on simple ionic cross-linking using EDC, followed by lyophilization to obtain the composite sponge. nCS suspension was characterized using DLS and SEM and showed a size range of 100-150 nm. The composite sponges were characterized using SEM, FT-IR and TG-DTA. Porosity, swelling, biodegradation, blood clotting and platelet activation of the prepared sponges were also evaluated. Nanocomposites showed a porosity of 67% and showed enhanced swelling and blood clotting ability. Cytocompatibility and cell adhesion studies of the sponges were done using human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells and the nanocomposite sponges showed more than 90% viability. Nanocomposite sponges also showed enhanced proliferation of HDF cells within two days of study. These results indicated that this nanocomposite sponges would be a potential candidate for wound dressing. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

M. Annapoorna, Kumar, P. T. Sudheesh, Lakshman, L. R., Lakshmanan, V. - K., Nair, S. V., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Biochemical properties of Hemigraphis alternata incorporated chitosan hydrogel scaffold”, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 92, pp. 1561-1565, 2013.[Abstract]


In this work, Hemigraphis alternata extract incorporated chitosan scaffold was synthesized and characterized for wound healing. The antibacterial activity of Hemigraphis incorporated chitosan scaffold (HIC) against Escherichia coli and Staphylococcus aureus was evaluated which showed a reduction in total colony forming units by 45-folds toward E. coli and 25-fold against S. aureus respectively. Cell viability studies using Human Dermal Fibroblast cells (HDF) showed 90% viability even at 48 h when compared to the chitosan control. The herbal scaffold made from chitosan was highly haemostatic and antibacterial. The obtained results were in support that the herbal scaffold can be effectively applied for infectious wounds. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

P. T. S. Kumar, Raj, N. M., Praveen, G., Chennazhi, K. P., Nair, S. V., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “In vitro and in vivo evaluation of microporous chitosan hydrogel/nanofibrin composite bandage for skin tissue regeneration”, Tissue Engineering - Part A, vol. 19, pp. 380-392, 2013.[Abstract]


In this work, we have developed chitosan hydrogel/nanofibrin composite bandages (CFBs) and characterized using Fourier transform-infrared spectroscopy and scanning electron microscopy. The homogeneous distribution of nanofibrin in the prepared chitosan hydrogel matrix was confirmed by phosphotungstic acid-hematoxylin staining. The mechanical strength, swelling, biodegradation, porosity, whole-blood clotting, and platelet activation studies were carried out. In addition, the cell viability, cell attachment, and infiltration of the prepared CFBs were evaluated using human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells. It was found that the CFBs were microporous, flexible, biodegradable, and showed enhanced blood clotting and platelet activity compared to the one without nanofibrin. The prepared CFBs were capable of absorbing fluid and this was confirmed when immersed in phosphate buffered saline. Cell viability studies on HUVECs and HDF cells proved the nontoxic nature of the CFBs. Cell attachment and infiltration studies showed that the cells were found attached and proliferated on the CFBs. In vivo experiments were carried out in Sprague-Dawley rats and found that the wound healing occurred within 2 weeks when treated with CFBs than compared to the bare wound and wound treated with Kaltostat. The deposition of collagen was found to be more on CFB-treated wounds compared to the control. The above results proved the use of these CFBs as an ideal candidate for skin tissue regeneration and wound healing. © Copyright 2013, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

T. R. Anuraj, N Rejinold, S., Biswas, R., Saroj, S., Shantikumar V Nair, Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, and Dr. Sabitha M., “Curcumin Nanospheres by Surfactant Free Wet Milling Method (In Press)”, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, 2013.

2013

Journal Article

N. S. Rejinold, Baby, T., Nair, S. V., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Paclitaxel loaded fibrinogen coated CDTE/ZNTE core shell nanoparticles for targeted imaging and drug delivery to breast cancer cells”, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, vol. 9, pp. 1657-1671, 2013.[Abstract]


The study aims at the targeted imaging using CdTe/ZnTe core shell QDs and delivery of paclitaxel (PTX) loaded fibrinogen coated yellow-QDs (PTX-fib-yellow-QDs) towards breast cancer cells via the α5 β1 -integrins. We developed fibrinogen coated different sized CdTe/ZnTe core shell quantum dots of 2-10 nm size, which have been prepared by one-pot aqueous-phase approach. The fib-coated-QDs (fib-coated-QDs) and PTX-fib-yellow-QDs were prepared by twostep coacervation technique using CaCl2 as cross-linker. Particle size of fib-coated-QDs was in between 60-220 nm while PTX-fib-yellow-QDs showed 180 ± 40 nm. The MTT assay confirmed cytocompatibility of fib-coated-QDs on L929 and MCF-7 than bare QDs, whereas significant toxicity toward MCF-7 by PTX-fib-yellow-QDs was observed. The hemocompatible fib-coated-QDs showed enhanced localization and retention toward α5 β1 -integrins +ve MCF-7 compared to α5 β1 -integrins -ve L929 cells. The specific binding of fib-coated-yellow-QDs was further confirmed with α5 β1 -integrins +ve HeLa and α5 β1 -integrins -ve HT29 cells. Cellular uptake studies revealed localization of PTX-fib-coated-yellow-QDs inside MCF-7 cells compared to the normal L929 cells. These results indicated that fib-coated-QDs could be used for targeted imaging and as a suitable "nanocarrier" aiming breast cancer cells. Copyright © 2013 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

More »»

2013

Journal Article

B. Swarnalatha, Nair, S. L., Shalumon, K. T., Milbauer, L. C., Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, Dr. Bindhu Paul, Menon, K. K., Hebbel, R. P., Somani, A., and Shantikumar V. Nair, “Poly (lactic acid)–chitosan–collagen composite nanofibers as substrates for blood outgrowth endothelial cells”, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 58, pp. 220 - 224, 2013.[Abstract]


Abstract In this work, the attachment, viability and functionality of rat Blood Outgrowth Endothelial Cells (rBOEC) and genetically modified rBOEC (rBOEC/eNOS-GFP), which over express endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS), were investigated on Poly(lactic acid) (PLA)–chitosan and PLA–chitosan–collagen nanofibrous scaffolds. Both the cell types displayed good attachment, remained viable and functional on both scaffolds. Moreover, incorporation of collagen in the scaffold helped in sustaining the rBOEC for upto one week, although collagen was not found necessary for rBOEC/eNOS-GFP. We conclude that PLA–chitosan based nanofibrous scaffolds can be a potential candidate for \{BOEC\} based wound healing applications. More »»

2012

Journal Article

P. T. S. Kumar, Lakshmanan, V. - K., Dr. Raja Biswas, Nair, S. V., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Synthesis and biological evaluation of chitin hydrogel/nano ZnO composite bandage as antibacterial wound dressing”, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, vol. 8, pp. 891-900, 2012.[Abstract]


We developed chitin hydrogel/nano ZnO composite bandages using chitin hydrogel and ZnO nanoparticles (nZnO). The homogenized mixture of chitin hydrogel and nZnO was freeze-dried to obtain micro-porous composite bandages. The prepared nanocomposite bandages were characterized using FT-IR, XRD and SEM. In addition, blood clotting, antibacterial, swelling, cytocompatibility and cell attachment capability of the prepared nanocomposite bandages were evaluated. The nanocomposite bandages showed enhanced swelling, blood clotting and antibacterial activity. The incorporation of nZnO helped to attain antibacterial activity. Cytocompatibility studies were carried out using human dermal fibroblast (HDF) cells proved the non-toxic nature of the composite bandages. HDF cell attachment and infiltration analysis showed that the cells were attached and penetrated into the interior (250μm) of the nanocomposite bandages. These studies revealed that, this nanocomposite can be used for burn, diabetic and chronic wound defects. Copyright © 2012 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

S. Maya, Indulekha, S., Sukhithasri, V., Smitha, K. T., Nair, S. V., Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, and Dr. Raja Biswas, “Efficacy of tetracycline encapsulated O-carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles against intracellular infections of Staphylococcus aureus”, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 51, pp. 392-399, 2012.[Abstract]


Intracellular bacterial infections are recurrent, persistent and are difficult to treat because of poor penetration and limited availability of antibiotics within macrophages and epithelial cells. We developed biocompatible, 200. nm sized tetracycline encapsulated O-carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles (Tet-O-CMC Nps) via ionic gelation for its sustained delivery of Tet into cells. S. aureus binds and aggregates with Tet-O-CMC Nps increasing drug concentrations at the infection site. Tet-O-CMC Nps were sixfold more effective in killing intracellular S. aureus compared to Tet alone in HEK-293 and differentiated THP1 macrophage cells proving it to be an efficient nanomedicine to treat intracellular S. aureus infections. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

A. Anitha, Maya, S., Deepa, N., Chennazhi, K. P., Nair, S. V., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Curcumin-loaded N, O-carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles for cancer drug delivery”, Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition, vol. 23, pp. 1381-1400, 2012.[Abstract]


Chitosan (CS) and its carboxymethyl derivatives are smart biopolymers that are non-toxic, biocompatible and biodegradable, and, hence, suitable for various biomedical applications, such as drug delivery, gene therapy and tissue engineering. Curcumin is a major chemotherapeutic agent with antioxidant, antiinflammatory, anti-proliferative, anticancer and antimicrobial effects. However, the potential of curcumin as a chemotherapeutic agent is limited by its hydrophobicity and poor bioavailability. In this work, we developed a nanoformulation of curcumin in a carboxymethyl chitosan (CMC) derivative, N, O -carboxymethyl chitosan (N,O-CMC). The curcumin-loaded N,O-CMC (curcumin-N,O-CMC) nanoparticles were characterized using DLS, AFM, SEM, FT-IR and XRD. DLS studies revealed nanoparticles with a mean diameter of 150 ± 30 nm. AFM and SEM confirmed that the particles have a spherical morphology within the size range of 150 ± 30 nm. Curcumin was entrapped with in N,O-CMC nanopartcles with an efficiency of 80%. The in vitro drug-release profile was studied at different pH (7.4 and 4.5) at 37°C for different incubation periods with and without lysozyme. Cytotoxicity studies using MTT assay indicated that curcumin-N,O-CMC nanoparticles showed specific toxicity towards cancer cells and non-toxicity to normal cells. Cellular uptake of curcumin-N,O-CMC nanoparticles was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and was reconfirmed by flow cytometry. Overall, these results indicate that like previously reported curcumin loaded O-CMC nanoparticles, N, O-CMC will also be an efficient nanocarrier for delivering curcumin to cancer cells. © 2011 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

N. Ganesh, Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, Koyakutty, M., Dr. Ullas Mony, and Nair, S. V., “Embedded silica nanoparticles in poly(caprolactone) nanofibrous scaffolds enhanced osteogenic potential for bone tissue engineering”, Tissue Engineering - Part A, vol. 18, pp. 1867-1881, 2012.[Abstract]


Poly(caprolactone) (PCL) has been frequently considered for bone tissue engineering because of its excellent biocompatibility. A drawback, however, of PCL is its inadequate mechanical strength for bone tissue engineering and its inadequate bioactivity to promote bone tissue regeneration from mesenchymal stem cells. To correct this deficiency, this work investigates the addition of nanoparticles of silica (nSiO2) to the scaffold to take advantage of the known bioactivity of silica as an osteogenic material and also to improve the mechanical properties through nanoscale reinforcement of the PCL fibers. The nanocomposite scaffolds and the pristine PCL scaffolds were evaluated physicochemically, mechanically, and biologically in the presence of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). The results indicated that, when the nanoparticles of size approximately 10 nm (concentrations of 0.5% and 1% w/v) were embedded within, or attached to, the PCL nanofibers, there was a substantial increase in scaffold strength, protein adsorption, and osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs. These nSiO2 nanoparticles, when directly added to the cells evidently pointed to ingestion of these particles by the cells followed by cell death. The polymer nanofibers appeared to protect the cells by preventing ingestion of the silica nanoparticles, while at the same time adequately exposing them on fiber surfaces for their desired bioactivity. © Copyright 2012, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

D. Sankar, Chennazhi, K. P., Nair, S. V., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Fabrication of chitin/poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) hydrogel scaffold”, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 90, pp. 725-729, 2012.[Abstract]


Regeneration of skin after a large area wound or burn is often difficult without the aid of a scaffold. In this work we developed a 3D macroporous chitin/poly(3-hydroxybutyrate-co-3-hydroxyvalerate) (PHBV) hydrogel blend by normal solution chemistry and lyophilized it to get the scaffold. The developed scaffold was then characterized and it showed a slow degrading as well as biocompatible nature. The blend hydrogel scaffold showed 67% porosity and the pore size was less than 20 μm. Cytocompatibility of the scaffold was proved by Alamar blue assay using Human Dermal Fibroblast cells (HDF). The blend hydrogel scaffold showed a two fold increase in cell number over control within three days of culture. The chitin/PHBV blend also showed enhanced HDF cell attachment and proliferation. These preliminary results prove its suitability for scaffold based skin tissue regeneration. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

A. Anitha, Chennazhi, K. P., Nair, S. V., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “5-Flourouracil loaded N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan nanoparticles as an anticancer nanomedicine for breast cancer”, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, vol. 8, pp. 29-42, 2012.[Abstract]


Chitosan and its carboxymethyl derivatives are smart biopolymers that are non-toxic, biocompatible, biodegradable and hence found applications in biomedical field. In the current work, we have developed 5-fluorouracil (5-FU) loaded N,O-carboxymethyl chitosan (N,O-CMC) nanoparticles (mean diameter: 80±20 nm, zeta potential: +52±47±2 mV) for cancer drug delivery. Drug entrapment efficiency (65%) and in vitro drug release studies were carried out spectrophotometricaly. Cellular internalization of the drug loaded nanoparticles was confirmed by fluorescent microscopy and flow cytometric analysis. Results of anticancer activity via MTT, apoptosis and caspase 3 assays showed the toxicity of the drug loaded nanoparticles towards breast cancer cells. As a whole these results indicates the potential of 5-FU loaded N,O-CMC nanoparticles in breast cancer chemotherapy in which the side effects of conventional chemo treatment could be reduced. Furthermore, the results of in vitro hemolytic assay and coagulation assay substantiate the blood compatibility of the system as well. Copyright © 2012 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

K. C. Kavya, Dixit, R., Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, Nair, S. V., and Chennazhi, K. P., “Synthesis and characterization of chitosan/chondroitin sulfate/nano- SiO 2 composite scaffold for bone tissue engineering”, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, vol. 8, pp. 149-160, 2012.[Abstract]


Chitosan, a natural polymer, is a biomaterial which is known to be osteoconductive but lacking in mechanical strength. In this work, to further enhance the mechanical property and biocompatibility of chitosan, we combined it with both chondroitin sulfate, a natural glycosaminoglycan found in bone, and nano-SiO 2. The composite scaffold of chitosan/chondroitin sulfate/nano-SiO 2 was fabricated by lyophilization. The nanocomposite scaffold showed enhanced porosity, degradation, mechanical integrity, biomineralization and protein adsorption. Biocompatibility and cell attachment-proliferation studies performed using MG-63 cells, advocate its better performance in vitro. To improve the cell seeding efficiency, we coated the scaffold surface with fibrin, which enhanced the initial cell attachment. The cumulative results suggest this novel nanocomposite scaffold to be a suitable candidate for bone tissue engineering. Copyright © 2012 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

D. Narayanan, Anitha, A., Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, Nair, S. V., and Chennazhi, K. P., “Synthesis, characterization and preliminary in vitro evaluation of PTH 1-34 loaded chitosan nanoparticles for osteoporosis”, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, vol. 8, pp. 98-106, 2012.[Abstract]


Human Parathyroid hormone 1-34 (PTH1-34) loaded chitosan nanoparticles (PTH 1-34 chitosan nanoparticles) via simple ionic gelation technique were prepared which can improve the bioavailability and half-life of the peptide. Chitosan nanoparticles and PTH 1-34 chitosan nanoparticles were synthesised and characterized by DLS, SEM, AFM, FT-IR and TG/DTA. Chitosan nanoparticles (40-60 nm) and PTH 1-34 chitosan nanoparticles (60-80 nm) with zeta potential of +60 and +40 mV respectively were subjected to haemolysis assay and tested for agglomeration in blood. MTT and LDH was performed assay using Saos-2, UMR 106, L929, NIH3T3. The in vitro peptide release profile at pH 7.5 for 144 h was quantified using PTH 1-34 ELISA Kit. Effect of released PTH 1-34 on Saos-2 was determined with ALP and BCA assay. These preliminary results pave way for the prospective use of such a carrier for the delivery of PTH 1-34 by multiple routes for the benefit of patients undergoing treatment for osteoporosis. Copyright © 2012 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, Nair, A., Rejinold, N. S., Maya, S., and Nair, S. V., “Doxorubicin-loaded pH-responsive chitin nanogels for drug delivery to cancer cells”, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 87, pp. 2352-2356, 2012.[Abstract]


This work deals with preparation of doxorubicin loaded chitin nanogels and were characterized by SEM, DLS and FTIR for cancer drug delivery. The in vitro cytotoxicity studies of 130-160 nm sized doxorubicin loaded chitin nanogels were studied using MTT assay on L929, PC3, MCF-7, A549 and HEPG2 confirmed that relatively higher toxicity on cancer cells comparing to normal L929 cells. The internalization studies showed a significant uptake of doxorubicin loaded chitin nanogels in all the tested cell lines. All the above results indicated that doxorubicin loaded chitin nanogels can be used for prostate, breast, lung and liver cancer. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

M. S. Sumitha, Shalumon, K. T., Sreeja, V. N., Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, and Nair, S. V., “Biocompatible and antibacterial nanofibrous poly(ε-caprolactone)- nanosilver composite scaffolds for tissue engineering applications”, Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 49, pp. 131-138, 2012.[Abstract]


Biodegradable polymers have been developed for medical applications such as surgical sutures, drug delivery devices, tissue supports and implants for interior bone fixation. However, implants are highly susceptible to microbial adhesion, which can ultimately lead to the formation of bio-films. The goal of the current study was to fabricate a biocompatible and antibacterial nanofibrous poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) scaffold for tissue engineering applications. To develop such a scaffold, silver nanoparticles synthesized by a novel in situ reduction route were incorporated into the PCL matrix during the process of electrospinning. The electrospun PCL and composite PCL/nanosilver fiber mats were characterized for their physico-chemical parameters using UV-VIS, SEM, XRD, FTIR and EDAX. Antibacterial activity of the composite scaffold was tested against Staphylococcus aureus using disc diffusion method and cytotoxicity evaluated using alamar blue assay. Cell adhesion studies carried out using human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs) seeded on the scaffold containing the lowest concentration of silver nanoparticles (0.2 mM) revealed that Ag nanoparticles can be effectively used as a growth inhibitor of microorganisms, without compromising on the cell adhesion. Thus, nanosilver incorporated PCL fibrous scaffold can be a potential candidate for tissue engineering applications, possessing multifunctional properties. © 2012 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

P. Supaphol, Suwantong, O., Sangsanoh, P., Srinivasan, S., Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, and Nair, S. V., “Electrospinning of biocompatible polymers and their potentials in biomedical applications”, Advances in Polymer Science, vol. 246, pp. 213-240, 2012.[Abstract]


Electrospinning has been recognized as a versatile method for the fabrication of continuous ultrafine fibers using electrical forces. Various natural and synthetic polymers have been successfully electrospun into non-woven mats or oriented fibrous bundles with high porosity and large surface areas. Despite the numerous reports on the production of electrospun fibers, these fiber mats did not gain much interest for use in the biomedical field until the past decade. This review summarizes the research and development related to the electrospinning of some common biocompatible polymers as well as an overview of their potential in many biomedical applications such as tissue engineering, wound dressing, carriers for drug delivery or controlled release, and enzyme immobilization. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

S. Srinivasan, Chennazhi, K. P., Levorson, E. J., Mikos, A. G., and Nair, S. V., “Multiscale fibrous scaffolds in regenerative medicine”, Advances in Polymer Science, vol. 246, pp. 1-20, 2012.[Abstract]


In recent years, multiscale fibrous scaffolds containing a combination of micro-and nanoscale fibers have attracted a lot of attention in the tissue engineering field. The multiscale concept is inspired by the hierarchical structure of many tissues, such as bone. Fibrous scaffolds have been traditionally microscale; however, it has been determined that many physicochemical and biological properties are influenced by fiber scale. For this reason, in an effort to optimize tissue regeneration the use of multiple scales has been investigated for obtaining innovative property combinations not otherwise attainable with a single fiber scale. Multiscale architectures have been found to be favorable not only in bone regeneration but also in the regeneration of soft tissues including cardiovascular tissue, neural tissue, cartilage, and skin. The unique properties of multiscale scaffolds have been pivotal in better mimicking the extracellular matrix and promoting vascularization, a key step towards the development of engineered tissue. In this review, we present current designs of multiscale scaffolds and discuss their physicochemical characteristics, as well as their potential applications in regenerative medicine. © 2011 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

S. Soumya, Sajesh, K. M., Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, Shantikumar V. Nair, and Chennazhi, K. P., “Development of a phytochemical scaffold for bone tissue engineering using Cissus quadrangularis extract”, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 87, pp. 1787-1795, 2012.[Abstract]


A novel "herbal scaffold" (Alg/O-CMC/CQ-E scaffold) was fabricated by incorporating medicinal plant Cissus quadrangularis (CQ) extract with natural biopolymers alginate (Alg) and O-carboxymethyl chitosan (O-CMC) by lyophilization technique The prepared composite scaffolds were characterized using scanning electron microscopy (SEM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) and X-ray diffraction analysis (XRD). Preliminary cytocompatibility studies with human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) supports the biocompatible nature of the composite scaffolds. There was a significant difference in initial cell attachment and proliferation on the herbal scaffolds compared to scaffolds fabricated without extract. Moreover, the hybrid scaffold favoured a substantially enhanced differentiation of hMSCs to osteoblasts, even without osteogenic media supplements, followed by increased calcified mineral deposition within two weeks of incubation. Hence, our primary investigation of physico-chemical and biological properties of the herbal scaffolds suggests that this osteoinductive scaffold could serve as a potential candidate for bone tissue engineering therapeutics. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

More »»

2012

Journal Article

S. Srinivasan, Jayasree, R., Chennazhi, K. P., Shantikumar V. Nair, and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Biocompatible alginate/nano bioactive glass ceramic composite scaffolds for periodontal tissue regeneration”, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 87, pp. 274-283, 2012.[Abstract]


Periodontal regeneration is of utmost importance in the field of dentistry which essentially reconstitutes and replaces the lost tooth supporting structures. For this purpose, nano bioactive glass ceramic particle (nBGC) incorporated alginate composite scaffold was fabricated and characterized using SEM, EDAX, AFM, FTIR, XRD and other methods. The swelling ability, in vitro degradation, biomineralization and cytocompatibility of the scaffold were also evaluated. The results indicated reduced swelling and degradation and enhanced biomineralization and protein adsorption. In addition, the human periodontal ligament fibroblast (hPDLF) and osteosarcoma (MG-63) cells were viable, adhered and proliferated well on the alginate/bioglass composite scaffolds in comparison to the control alginate scaffolds. The presence of nBGC enhanced the alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity of the hPDLF cells cultured on the composite scaffolds. Thus results suggest that these biocompatible composite scaffolds can be useful for periodontal tissue regeneration. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All Rights Reserved.

More »»

2011

Journal Article

B. T. Midhun, Shalumon, K. T., Manzoor, K., Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, Shantikumar V. Nair, and Deepthy, M., “Preparation of budesonide-loaded polycaprolactone nanobeads by electrospraying for controlled drug release”, Journal of Biomaterials Science, Polymer Edition, vol. 22, pp. 2431-2444, 2011.[Abstract]


Corticosteroids such as budesonide are the drugs of choice for the treatment of inflammatory disorders with an inherent limitation, viz., rapid elimination. To overcome this constraint and attain sustained release, budesonide was encapsulated in a biodegradable polymer, polycaprolactone (PCL), by DC electrospraying. By varying the experimental parameters involved in electrospraying such as applied voltage, flow rate, viscosity as well as conductivity of the polymer solution, the dimensionality of nanostructures was tuned from 1-D nanofibers to spherical nanoparticles. By adopting this rapid and viable method of DC electrospraying, we successfully prepared aqueous suspensions of nearly monodispersed, nano-sized drug encapsulated PCL. Drug encapsulation efficiency, in vitro drug release as well as biocompatibility studies of budesonide-loaded PCL nanobeads were carried out. The cytocompatible nanobeads prepared by electrospraying exhibited good encapsulation efficiency (approx. 75%), with controlled drug release enabled by the dissolution of the polymer. Our results demonstrate the potential of this novel technique of electrospraying in developing efficient drug encapsulated polymeric nanocarriers possessing sustained drug release profile. © 2011 Koninklijke Brill NV, Leiden. More »»

2011

Journal Article

K. T. Shalumon, Anulekha, K. H., Nair, S. V., Chennazhi, K. P., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Sodium alginate/poly(vinyl alcohol)/nano ZnO composite nanofibers for antibacterial wound dressings”, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 49, pp. 247-254, 2011.[Abstract]


Sodium alginate (SA)/poly (vinyl alcohol) (PVA) fibrous mats were prepared by electrospinning technique. ZnO nanoparticles of size  160. nm was synthesized and characterized by UV spectroscopy, dynamic light scattering (DLS), XRD and infrared spectroscopy (IR). SA/PVA electrospinning was further carried out with ZnO with different concentrations (0.5, 1, 2 and 5%) to get SA/PVA/ZnO composite nanofibers. The prepared composite nanofibers were characterized using FT-IR, XRD, TGA and SEM studies. Cytotoxicity studies performed to examine the cytocompatibility of bare and composite SA/PVA fibers indicate that those with 0.5 and 1% ZnO concentrations are less toxic where as those with higher concentrations of ZnO is toxic in nature. Cell adhesion potential of this mats were further proved by studying with L929 cells for different time intervals. Antibacterial activity of SA/PVA/ZnO mats were examined with two different bacteria strains; Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, and found that SA/PVA/ZnO mats shows antibacterial activity due to the presence of ZnO. Our results suggest that this could be an ideal biomaterial for wound dressing applications once the optimal concentration of ZnO which will give least toxicity while providing maximum antibacterial activity is identified.f. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. More »»

2011

Journal Article

Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, Ramachandran, R., Kumar, P. T. Sudheesh, Divyarani, V. V., Srinivasan, S., Chennazhi, K. P., Tamura, H., and Nair, S. V., “Fabrication of chitin-chitosan/nano ZrO2 composite scaffolds for tissue engineering applications”, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 49, pp. 274-280, 2011.[Abstract]


The urge to repair and regenerate natural tissues can now be satisfactorily fulfilled by various tissue engineering approaches. Chitin and chitosan are the most widely accepted biodegradable and biocompatible materials subsequent to cellulose. The incorporation of nano ZrO2 onto the chitin-chitosan scaffold is thought to enhance osteogenesis. Hence a nanocomposite scaffold was fabricated by lyophilization technique using chitin-chitosan with nano ZrO2. The prepared nanocomposite scaffolds were characterized using SEM, FTIR, XRD and TGA. In addition, the swelling, degradation, biomineralization, cell viability and cell attachment of the composite scaffolds were also evaluated. The results demonstrated better swelling and controlled degradation in comparison to the control scaffold. Cell viability studies proved the non toxic nature of the nanocomposite scaffolds. Cells were found to be attached to the pore walls and spread uniformly throughout the scaffolds. All these results suggested that the developed nanocomposite scaffolds possess the prerequisites for tissue engineering scaffolds and could be used for various tissue engineering applications. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. More »»

2011

Journal Article

K. T. Shalumon, Sreerekha, P. R., Sathish, D., Tamura, H., Nair, S. V., Chennazhi, K. P., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Hierarchically designed electrospun tubular scaffolds for cardiovascular applications”, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, vol. 7, pp. 609-620, 2011.[Abstract]


Hierarchically designed tubular scaffolds with bi-layer and multi-layer structures are expected to mimic native vessels in its structural geometry. A new approach for the fabrication of hierarchically designed tubular scaffold with suitable morphology was introduced through electrospinning technique. Among these scaffolds, bi-layer scaffold had a single inner and outer layer whereas multilayer scaffold had more number of inner layers. The inner layer/layers of the scaffolds were made up of aligned poly (lactic acid) (PLA) fibers for EC adhesion where as outer layers were composed of random fibers of poly (caprolactone) (PCL) and PLA providing larger pores for SMC penetration. The fabricated scaffolds were characterized by FTIR spectroscopy and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA) and examined by evaluating cellular interactions. Human Umbilical Vein Endothelial Cells (HUVECs) seeded on aligned PLA fibers showed enhanced cellular orientation and cytoskeletal organization. In addition, the PCL-PLA composite random fibers supported SMC adhesion and proliferation sufficiently. The functionality of the endothelial cells grown on the PLA-aligned scaffold was also found to be satisfactory. Lining the constructs with a luminal monolayer of well-organized ECs along with homogenously distributed SMCs surrounding them might result in vascular conduits suitable for in vivo applications. Since this hierarchically designed tubular scaffold closely mimics the morphology of native vessel, this could be a better candidate for vascular tissue engineering. Copyright © 2011 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved. More »»

2011

Journal Article

S. N. Rejinold, Sreerekha, P. R., Chennazhi, K. P., Nair, S. V., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Biocompatible, biodegradable and thermo-sensitive chitosan-g-poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) nanocarrier for curcumin drug delivery”, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 49, pp. 161-172, 2011.[Abstract]


A nano formulation of curcumin loaded biodegradable thermoresponsive chitosan-g-poly (N-isopropylacrylamide) co-polymeric nanoparticles (TRC-NPs) (150. nm) were prepared by ionic cross-linking method and characterized. The in vitro drug release was prominent at above LCST. Cytocompatibility of TRC-NPs (100-1000 μg/ml) on an array of cell line is proved by MTT assay. The drug loaded TRC-NPs showed specific toxicity on cancer cells. The cell uptake studies were confirmed by fluorescent microscopy. Flowcytometric analysis of curcumin loaded TRC-NPs showed increased apoptosis on PC3 cells. These results indicated that TRC-NPs could be a potential nanovehicle for curcumin drug delivery. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. More »»

2011

Journal Article

S. N. Rejinold, Muthunarayanan, M., Divyarani, V. V., Sreerekha, P. R., Chennazhi, K. P., Nair, S. V., Tamura, H., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Curcumin-loaded biocompatible thermoresponsive polymeric nanoparticles for cancer drug delivery”, Journal of Colloid and Interface Science, vol. 360, pp. 39-51, 2011.[Abstract]


This study aims at the formulation of curcumin with biodegradable thermoresponsive chitosan-g-poly (N-vinylcaprolactam) nanoparticles (TRC-NPs) for cancer drug delivery. The spherical curcumin-loaded nanoparticles of size 220. nm were characterized, and the biological properties were studied using flow cytometry and cytotoxicity by MTT assay. The in vitro drug release was higher at above LCST compared to that at below LCST. TRC-NPs in the concentration range of 100-1000 μg/mL were non-toxic to an array of cell lines. The cellular localization of the curcumin-loaded TRC-NPs was confirmed from green fluorescence inside the cells. The time-dependent curcumin uptake by the cells was quantified by UV spectrophotometer. Curcumin-loaded TRC-NPs showed specific toxicity to cancer cells at above their LCST. Flow cytometric analysis showed increased apoptosis on PC3 compared to L929 by curcumin-loaded TRC-NPs. These results indicate that novel curcumin-loaded TRC-NPs could be a promising candidate for cancer drug delivery. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. More »»

2011

Journal Article

S. N. Rejinold, Muthunarayanan, M., Chennazhi, K. P., Nair, S. V., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Curcumin loaded fibrinogen nanoparticles for cancer drug delivery”, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, vol. 7, pp. 521-534, 2011.[Abstract]


In this work we prepared and evaluated the curcumin loaded fibrinogen nanoparticles (CRC-FNPs) as a novel drug delivery system for cancer therapy. These novel CRC-FNPs were prepared by a two-step co-acervation method using calcium chloride as the cross-linker. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetry (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. DLS studies showed that the particle size of CRC-FNPs was in the range of 150-200 nm. The loading efficiency (LE) and in vitro drug release were studied using UV spectrophotometer. The LE was found to be 90%. The cytotoxicity was studied using L929 (mouse fibroblast), PC3 (prostate) and MCF7 (breast) cancer cell lines by MTT assay, which confirmed that CRC-FNPs were comparatively non toxic to L929 cell line while toxic to PC3 and MCF7 cancer cells. Cellular uptake of CRC-FNPs studied using L929, MCF-7 and PC3 cells monitored by fluorescent microscopy, demonstrated significant internalization and retention of nanoparticles inside the cells. The preferential accumulation of curcumin within the cancer cells were also confirmed by flowcytometry based uptake studies. The apoptosis assay showed increased apoptosis on MCF-7 compared to L929 cells. The blood compatibility of CRC-FNPs throws light on the fact that it is possible to administer the prepared nanoformulation intravenously. The results indicated that CRC-FNPs could be a promising therapeutic agent for cancer treatment. Copyright © 2011 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved. More »»

2011

Journal Article

K. T. Shalumon, Anulekha, K. H., Chennazhi, K. P., Tamura, H., Nair, S. V., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Fabrication of chitosan/poly(caprolactone) nanofibrous scaffold for bone and skin tissue engineering”, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 48, pp. 571-576, 2011.[Abstract]


Chitosan/poly(caprolactone) (CS/PCL) nanofibrous scaffold was prepared by a single step electrospinning technique. The presence of CS in CS/PCL scaffold aided a significant improvement in the hydrophilicity of the scaffold as confirmed by a decrease in contact angle, which thereby enhanced bioactivity and protein adsorption on the scaffold. The cyto-compatibility of the CS/PCL scaffold was examined using human osteoscarcoma cells (MG63) and found to be non toxic. Moreover, CS/PCL scaffold was found to support the attachment and proliferation of various cell lines such as mouse embryo fibroblasts (NIH3T3), murine aneuploid fibro sarcoma (L929), and MG63 cells. Cell attachment and proliferation was further confirmed by nuclear staining using 4′,6-diamidino-2-phenylindole (DAPI). All these results indicate that CS/PCL nanofibrous scaffold would be an excellent system for bone and skin tissue engineering. © 2011 Elsevier B.V. More »»

2011

Journal Article

A. Anitha, Deepagan, V. G., Rani, V. V. Divya, Menon, D., Shantikumar V. Nair, and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Preparation, characterization, in vitro drug release and biological studies of curcumin loaded dextran sulphate-chitosan nanoparticles”, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 84, pp. 1158-1164, 2011.[Abstract]


Nanoformulation of curcumin, (a low molecular weight hydrophobic drug) was prepared by using dextran sulphate and chitosan. The developed nanoparticles were characterized by Dynamic Light Scattering measurements (DLS), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM), Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FT-IR), X-ray Diffraction (XRD) and Differential Thermal Analysis (DTA). The prepared system showed an average size of 200-220 nm with a zeta potential value of -30 mV and showed ∼74% drug entrapment efficiency. In vitro drug release studies showed a controlled and pH dependent curcumin release over a period of one week. The cytocompatibility of bare nanoparticles was verified by MTT assay; cellular internalisation of curcumin loaded nanoparticles was confirmed by fluorescent imaging and quantified spectrophotometrically, anticancer activity of curcumin loaded nanoparticles was proved by MTT assay and reconfirmed by apoptosis assay (FACS). The results showed preferential killing of cancer cells compared to normal cells by the curcumin-loaded nanoparticles. Thus the developed curcumin loaded nanoformulation could be a promising candidate in cancer therapy. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. More »»

2011

Journal Article

Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, Chennazhi, K. P., Srinivasan, S., Nair, S. V., Furuike, T., and Tamura, H., “Chitin scaffolds in tissue engineering”, International Journal of Molecular Sciences, vol. 12, pp. 1876-1887, 2011.[Abstract]


Tissue engineering/regeneration is based on the hypothesis that healthy stem/progenitor cells either recruited or delivered to an injured site, can eventually regenerate lost or damaged tissue. Most of the researchers working in tissue engineering and regenerative technology attempt to create tissue replacements by culturing cells onto synthetic porous three-dimensional polymeric scaffolds, which is currently regarded as an ideal approach to enhance functional tissue regeneration by creating and maintaining channels that facilitate progenitor cell migration, proliferation and differentiation. The requirements that must be satisfied by such scaffolds include providing a space with the proper size, shape and porosity for tissue development and permitting cells from the surrounding tissue to migrate into the matrix. Recently, chitin scaffolds have been widely used in tissue engineering due to their non-toxic, biodegradable and biocompatible nature. The advantage of chitin as a tissue engineering biomaterial lies in that it can be easily processed into gel and scaffold forms for a variety of biomedical applications. Moreover, chitin has been shown to enhance some biological activities such as immunological, antibacterial, drug delivery and have been shown to promote better healing at a faster rate and exhibit greater compatibility with humans. This review provides an overview of the current status of tissue engineering/regenerative medicine research using chitin scaffolds for bone, cartilage and wound healing applications. We also outline the key challenges in this field and the most likely directions for future development and we hope that this review will be helpful to the researchers working in the field of tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. © 2011 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. More »»

2011

Journal Article

Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, Ramachandran, R., Divyarani, V. V., Chennazhi, K. P., Tamura, H., and Nair, S. V., “Fabrication of chitin-chitosan/nano TiO2-composite scaffolds for tissue engineering applications”, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 48, pp. 336-344, 2011.[Abstract]


In this study, we prepared chitin-chitosan/nano TiO2 composite scaffolds using lyophilization technique for bone tissue engineering. The prepared composite scaffold was characterized using SEM, XRD, FTIR and TGA. In addition, swelling, degradation and biomineralization capability of the composite scaffolds were evaluated. The developed composite scaffold showed controlled swelling and degradation when compared to the control scaffold. Cytocompatibility of the scaffold was assessed by MTT assay and cell attachment studies using osteoblast-like cells (MG-63), fibroblast cells (L929) and human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs). Results indicated no sign of toxicity and cells were found attached to the pore walls within the scaffolds. These results suggested that the developed composite scaffold possess the prerequisites for tissue engineering scaffolds and it can be used for tissue engineering applications. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. More »»

2011

Journal Article

V. V. D. Rani, Ramachandran, R., Chennazhi, K. P., Tamura, H., Nair, S. V., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Fabrication of alginate/nanoTiO2 needle composite scaffolds for tissue engineering applications”, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 83, pp. 858-864, 2011.[Abstract]


Alginate is a naturally occurring polymer that has been widely accepted as biodegradable and biocompatible material. Incorporation of nanoceramic will improve the capability of polymeric scaffold for tissue regeneration. Hence, in this study we fabricated a nanocomposite scaffold using alginate with nanoTiO2 needles by lyophilization technique. The prepared nanocomposite scaffold was characterized using SEM, XRD, FTIR and TGA. In addition, swelling, degradation and biomineralization capability of the scaffold were also evaluated. The developed nanocomposite scaffolds showed well controlled swelling and degradation when compared to the control alginate scaffold. Cytocompatibility was assessed using MTT assay and cell attachment studies. Results indicated no sign of toxicity and cells were found to be attached to the pore walls offered by the scaffolds. These results suggested that the developed nanocomposite scaffold possess the prerequisites for tissue engineering application. Hence, alginate/nanoTiO2 composite scaffold can be used as a better option for tissue regeneration. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. More »»

2011

Journal Article

A. Anitha, Maya, S., Deepa, N., Chennazhi, K. P., Nair, S. V., Tamura, H., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Efficient water soluble O-carboxymethyl chitosan nanocarrier for the delivery of curcumin to cancer cells”, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 83, pp. 452-461, 2011.[Abstract]


Carboxymethyl chitosan derivatives are widely used for biomedical applications because of their non-toxic and biodegradable properties. Curcumin is a phytochemical with immense biological properties. But its hydrophobicity and poor oral bioavailability limits its application as a chemotherapeutic agent. To increase the oral bioavailability, we developed curcumin loaded O-CMC nanoparticles (curcumin-O-CMC Nps). The prepared nanoparticles were characterized by DLS, AFM, SEM, FT-IR, XRD and TG/DTA. Size analysis studies revealed spherical particles with mean diameter of about 150 ± 30 nm. Curcumin was entrapped in O-CMC with an efficiency of 87%. In vitro drug release profile was studied at 37 °C under different pHs (7.4 and 4.5) with and without lysozyme. Cytotoxicity studies by MTT assay indicated that curcumin-O-CMC Nps were toxic to cancer and non-toxic to normal cells. Cellular uptake of the curcumin-O-CMC Nps was analyzed by fluorescence microscopy and FACS. Overall these studies indicated O-CMC as a promising nanomatrix for drug delivery applications. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. More »»

2011

Journal Article

K. T. Shalumon, Binulal, N. S., Deepthy, M., Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, Manzoor, K., and Nair, S. V., “Preparation, characterization and cell attachment studies of electrospun multi-scale poly(caprolactone) fibrous scaffolds for tissue engineering”, Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 48, pp. 21-30, 2011.[Abstract]


Electrospun nano, micro and micro/nano (multiscale) poly(caprolactone) (PCL) fibrous scaffolds with and without nano hydroxyapatite (nHAp) was prepared. All the scaffolds were evaluated for its spectroscopic, morphological, mechanical, thermal, cell attachment and protein adsorption properties. The cell attachment studies showed that cell activity on the nano-fibrous, as well as multi-scale scaffolds with and without nHAp was higher compared to micro-fibrous scaffolds. A time dependent cell attachment study on aligned micro-fibers was carried out to elucidate the difference in cell interaction on micro-fibers. The cell activity, proliferation and total protein adsorption on the nano-fibers/nano-fibers with nHAp was significantly higher than on the micro-fibers, although the adsorption per unit area was less on the nano-fibers due to the much higher surface area of nano-fibers. These results suggest that a combination of a micro- and nano-fiber hierarchical scaffold could be more beneficial for tissue engineering applications than the individual scaffolds provided the amount of nano- fibers could be suitably optimized. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. More »»

2011

Journal Article

A. Anitha, Deepa, N., Chennazhi, K. P., Nair, S. V., Tamura, H., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Development of mucoadhesive thiolated chitosan nanoparticles for biomedical applications”, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 83, pp. 66-73, 2011.[Abstract]


The main objective of this work was to develop nanoparticles (NPs) of a mucoadhesive polymer based on chitosan for biomedical applications. Here, we developed thiolated chitosan (TCS) using thioglycolic acid (TGA) and chitosan in the presence of 1-ethyl-3-3(3-dimethylaminopropyl) carbodiimide hydrochloride (EDC) as catalyst. The prepared TCS was characterized using FT-IR and the degree of thiol substitution was found out by Ellman's method. The TCS nanoparticles (TCS-NPs) were developed using ionic cross-linking reaction with pentasodium tripolyphosphate (TPP). The prepared TCS-NPs were characterized by DLS, AFM, FT-IR, TG/DTA, etc. In vitro cytocompatibility and cell uptake studies were also carried out. These studies suggest that the prepared NPs show less toxicity towards normal and cancer cells and they are easily taken up by both the normal and cancer cells. So the prepared TCS-NPs could be used for drug and gene delivery applications. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. More »»

2011

Journal Article

N. S. Rejinold, Muthunarayanan, M., Chennazhi, K. P., Nair, S. V., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “5-Fluorouracil loaded fibrinogen nanoparticles for cancer drug delivery applications”, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 48, pp. 98-105, 2011.[Abstract]


In this study, 5-flurouracil loaded fibrinogen nanoparticles (5-FU-FNPs) were prepared by two step coacervation method using calcium chloride as cross-linker. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using DLS, SEM, AFM, FT-IR, TG/DTA and XRD studies. Particle size of 5-FU-FNPs was found to be 150-200 nm. The loading efficiency (LE) and in vitro drug release was studied using UV spectrophotometer. The LE of FNPs was found to be ∼90%. The cytotoxicity studies showed 5-FU-FNPs were toxic to MCF7, PC3 and KB cells while they are comparatively non toxic to L929 cells. Cellular uptake of Rhodamine 123 conjugated 5-FU-FNPs was also studied. Cell uptake studies demonstrated that the nanoparticles are inside the cells. These results indicated that FNPs could be useful for cancer drug delivery. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. More »»

2010

Journal Article

L. R. Lakshman, Shalumon, K. T., Nair, S. V., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Preparation of silver nanoparticles incorporated electrospun polyurethane nano-fibrous mat for wound dressing”, Journal of Macromolecular Science, Part A: Pure and Applied Chemistry, vol. 47, pp. 1012-1018, 2010.[Abstract]


Polyurethane foam is currently used as an exudate absorptive wound dressing material. In this study silver (Ag) nanoparticles were incorporated into electrospun polyurethane (PU) nanofiber to enhance the antibacterial as well as wound healing properties. The electrospinning parameters were optimized for PU with and without silver nanoparticles. Silver nanoparticles were synthesized by aqueous and organic methods. The water absorption, antibacterial and cytocompatibility of the PU-Ag nanofibers were studied and compared to that of conventional PU foam. The results indicated that the PU-Ag nanofibers could be used for wound dressing applications. Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC. More »»

2010

Journal Article

N. S. Rejinold, Muthunarayanan, M., Deepa, N., Chennazhi, K. P., Nair, S. V., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Development of novel fibrinogen nanoparticles by two-step co-acervation method”, International Journal of Biological Macromolecules, vol. 47, pp. 37-43, 2010.[Abstract]


Fibrinogen is a natural protein involved in the coagulation cascade. In this study, fibrinogen nanoparticles were prepared by a two-step co-acervation method using calcium chloride as cross-linker. The prepared nanoparticles were characterized using dynamic light scattering (DLS), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), atomic force microscopy (AFM), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FT-IR), thermogravimetric (TG), differential thermal analysis (DTA) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The cytotoxicity was studied using NIH3T3, L929 and SKBR3 cell lines by MTT assay, which confirmed that the prepared nanoparticles were non-toxic. Fluorescence measurements revealed that the protein fluorescent band is the same for nanoformulation as bulk, which confirms the retention of protein structure in the nanoparticles. Cellular uptake of Rhodamine 123 conjugated fibrinogen nanoparticles by L929 cells monitored by fluorescent microscopy demonstrated significant internalization and retention of nanoparticles inside the cells. Our preliminary experiments suggest the prospective use of fibrinogen nanoparticles as a superior drug delivery carrier. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. More »»

2010

Journal Article

K. T. Shalumon, Anulekha, K. H., Girish, C. M., Prasanth, R., Shantikumar V. Nair, and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Single step electrospinning of chitosan/poly(caprolactone) nanofibers using formic acid/acetone solvent mixture”, Carbohydrate Polymers, vol. 80, pp. 414-420, 2010.[Abstract]


A fibrous scaffold comprising of chitosan (CS) and poly(ε-caprolactone) (PCL) was electrospun from a novel solvent mixture consisting of formic acid and acetone. CS concentration was varied from 0.5% to 2% by fixing PCL concentration as a constant (6%). Selected CS concentration (1%) was further blended with 4-10% PCL to obtain fine nanofibers. The composition of mixing was selected as 25:75 (1:3), 50:50 (1:1) and 75:25 (3:1) of CS and PCL. Lower concentrations of PCL resulted in beaded fibers where as 8% and 10% of PCL in lower compositions of chitosan resulted in fine nanofibers. Viscosity and conductivity measurements revealed the optimum values for the spinnability of the polymer solutions. Optimized combination of CS and PCL (1% CS and 8% PCL) in 1:3 compositions was further characterized using SEM, FTIR, AFM and TG-DTA. The developed electrospun CS/PCL scaffold would be an excellent matrix for biomedical applications. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved. More »»

2010

Journal Article

N. S. Binulal, Deepthy, M., Selvamurugan, N., Shalumon, K. T., Suja, S., Dr. Ullas Mony, Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, and Nair, S. V., “Role of nanofibrous poly(caprolactone) scaffolds in human mesenchymal stem cell attachment and spreading for in vitro bone tissue engineering-response to osteogenic regulators”, Tissue Engineering - Part A, vol. 16, pp. 393-404, 2010.[Abstract]


In this study, we evaluated the role of fiber size scale in the adhesion and spreading potential of human mesenchymal stem cells (hMSCs) on electrospun poly(caprolactone) (PCL) nanofibrous and microfibrous scaffolds. The effect of in vivo regulators in inducing osteogenic differentiation of hMSCs on PCL nanofibrous scaffolds was investigated using osteogenic differentiation marker gene expression and matrix mineralization. Here, we report for the first time the influence of in vivo regulators in an in vitro setting with hMSCs for bone tissue engineering on PCL nanofibrous matrices. Our results indicated that hMSCs attached and spread rapidly on nanofibrous scaffolds in comparison to microfibrous PCL. Further, hMSCs proliferated well on the nanofibrous scaffolds. The cells on the nanofibrous PCL were found to differentiate into the osteoblast lineage and subsequently mineralize upon addition of in vivo osteogenic regulators. The attachment and spreading of hMSCs were more effective on the nanofibers compared with the microfibers despite the lower protein surface coverage (total adsorbed protein per unit fiber surface area) on nanofibers. Copyright 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc. More »»

Publication Type: Patent

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2011

Patent

Dr. Sabitha M., Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, Shantikumar V Nair, Amrita, N., N Rejinold, S., and Lakshmanan, V. Kumar, “The art, method, manner, process and system of preparation of curcumin loaded chitin nanogels for skin penetration”, U.S. Patent 2353/CHE/2011 A2011.[Abstract]


A method for the preparation of chitin nanogel loaded with curcumin without using any organic solvents or surfactants which show deep skin penetration and increased bioavailability of curcumin at sites of cancer with low pH.

More »»

2011

Patent

Shantikumar V Nair, Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, Lakshmanan, V. - K., Kumar, P. T. Sudhess, Snima, K. S., and Ramya, C., “THE ART, METHOD, MANNER, PROCESS AND SYSTEM OF PREPARATION OF PROPOLIS NANOPARTICLES FOR ANTI-CANCEROUS AND ANTIBACTERIAL APPLICATIONS”, U.S. Patent 907/CHE/20112011.

2011

Patent

S. Kumar V. Nair, Chennazhi, K. P., Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, and N. Rejinold, S., “THE ART, METHOD, MANNER, PROCESS AND SYSTEM OF PREPARATION OF BETA CHITIN NANOGELS FOR VARIOUS BIOMEDICAL APPLICATIONS”, U.S. Patent 356/CHE/20112011.

2011

Patent

S. Kumar V. Nair, Chennazhi, K. P., Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, and N. Rejinold, S., “THE ART, METHOD, MANNER, PROCESS AND SYSTEM OF PREPARATION OF ALPHA CHITIN NANOGELS FOR DRUG DELIVERY AND IMAGING APPLICATIONS”, U.S. Patent 357/CHE/20112011.

2010

Patent

Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, Manzoor, K., Shantikumar V Nair, Lakshmanan, V. K., Kumar, P. T. Sudheesh, and Abhilash, S., “THE ART, MANNER, METHOD AND PROCESS OF PREPARATION OF CHITOSAN SPONGE CONTAINING THE HERB COLEUS PLECTRANTBUS AS A WOUND DRESSING”, U.S. Patent 3012/CHE/20102010.

2010

Patent

Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, Manzoor, K., Shantikumar V Nair, Lakshmanan, V. K., Kumar, P. T. Sudheesh, and Abhilash, S., “The Art, Method, Manner, Process and System of Chitosan hydrogel / Nano Zinc Oxide Membranes for Wound Dressing Applications”, U.S. Patent 1025/CHE/20102010.

2010

Patent

S. Nair, Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, Muthunarayanan, M., N. Rejinold, S., Deepa, N., and Chennazhi, K. P., “THE ART, MANNER, METHOD AND PROCESS OF PREPARATION OF FIBRINOGEN NANOPARTICLES BY A SIMPLE TWO-STEP CO-ACERVATION METHOD FOR DRUG DELIVERY APPLICATIONS”, U.S. Patent 2784/CHE/2010 2010.

207
PROGRAMS
OFFERED
5
AMRITA
CAMPUSES
15
CONSTITUENT
SCHOOLS
A
GRADE BY
NAAC, MHRD
9th
RANK(INDIA):
NIRF 2017
150+
INTERNATIONAL
PARTNERS