Qualification: 
Ph.D, M.Tech
s_arul@cb.amrita.edu

Dr. Sanjivi Arul currently serves as Associate Professor at Department of Mechanical Engineering, School of Engineering, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham, Coimbatore Campus. His areas of research include Robotics, Automation and Welding.

Education

Professional Appointments

Year Affiliation
July 2013 - Present Associate Professor: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amrita School of Engineering, Coimbatore
January 2014 - June 2013 Assistant Professor: Department of Mechanical Engineering, Amrita School of Engineering, Coimbatore
March 1997 - December 2003 Senior Lecturer, Department of Production Engineering, Amrita Institute of Technology and Science, Coimbatore
August 1986 - February 1996 Lecturer, Tamil Nadu College of Engineering, Coimbatore

Research Interest

  • Cryogenic Materials Processing: Study of the effect of materials properties due to Cryogenic treatment during machining processes.
  • Surface Engineering: In-Situ alloy development to enhance surface properties of metals and alloys.
  • Welding: Computational Modelling of Autogenous Welding Process.
  • Robotics: Mobile robots, Parallel Kinematic Machines, Under-water Robot and Micro Aerial Vehicle, Bio-signals based control systems

Courses Handled

Theory

  • Advanced Welding Technology
  • Computer Graphics & Visualisation
  • Computer Integrated Manufacturing
  • Embedded Systems for Robotics
  • Ergonomics
  • Industrial Robotics
  • Industrial Robotics & Material Handling Systems
  • Instrumentation and Control
  • Instrumentation and Controls
  • Intelligent Machines and Systems
  • Lean Manufacturing
  • Manufacturing Automation
  • Materials Joining Technologies
  • Mechatronics
  • Medical Robotics
  • Non-Traditional Machining Techniques
  • Oil Hydraulics and Pneumatics
  • Power Plant Engineering

Laboratory

  • C-programming Lab
  • Fluid Power Lab
  • Fluid Power and PLC Lab
  • Metrology Lab
  • Manufacturing Engg Lab
  • Workshop

Sponsored Projects

Years Funding Agency Title of Project Amount of Grant (Rs.) Investigators
2006 (3 years) AICTE -RPS Development of a real-time, process control method based on neural network model using feedback of weld pool geometric parameters measured by a vision-based technique and experimental verification for automated arc welding processes 8.0 lacs Principal Investigator:
Dr. R. Sellamuthu (PI),

Co-Investigators:
Sanjivi Arul
S.Ilangovan
R.Saravanan
2005 (3 years) DST - Indo-Italy POC in S&T Autonomous Mobile Robots based on Bio-inspired Artificial Control 4.5 lacs Principal Investigator:
Sanjivi Arul
2004 (3 years) DRDO Development of a method to control UV radiation in welding processes 15.45 lacs Principal Investigator:
Dr. R. Sellamuthu (PI),

Co-Investigators:
Sanjivi Arul
S. Ilangovan
R. Saravanan
2012 (3 years) DRDO Development of Spinodal Bronze, Bronze Matrix Composite and Functionally Gradient Bronze and Comparison of Their Mechanical and wear Properties 14.2 lacs Principal Investigator:
Dr. R. Sellamuthu (PI),

Co-Investigators:
Sanjivi Arul
S. Ilangovan
R. Saravanan

Publications

Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Title

2019

E. Naveen, Ilangovan Soundiah, and Dr. Sanjivi Arul, “Influence of Homogenization Temperature on Mechanical Properties from Outer to Inner Zone of Al–Cu–Si Alloy Castings”, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, pp. 353-363, 2019.[Abstract]


Impact of variation in mechanical properties from the outer to inner zone of aluminium–copper–silicon (Al–1.5Cu–0.5Si) sand cast alloy was studied by applying three different homogenization thermodynamic states (425, 500 and 575 °C respectively) at a constant soaking time of 10 h. The effect of hardness, strength, and percentage deformation on specimens were measured at outer, middle and inner zones of the sectioned rods in both as-cast and homogenized conditions. The hardness and tensile strength of the specimens were decreased from outer zone to inner zone in both as-cast and all homogenized conditions; whereas its individual value with respect to various zones decreased with increased homogenization temperatures. It was also observed that the percentage elongation of the alloy varied inversely with the hardness and tensile strength values, and also that the hardness values varied proportional to the tensile strength.

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2019

M. K. Chaanthini and Dr. Sanjivi Arul, “Improving Surface Hardness of EN31 Steel by Surface Hardening and Cryogenic Treatment”, Journal of The Institution of Engineers (India): Series D, vol. 100, no. 1, pp. 37-42, 2019.[Abstract]


Steels are subjected to different conventional heat treatment (CHT) processes such as annealing, normalizing, hardening, tempering, quenching, and stress relieving, to improve the mechanical properties and surface coating methods such as electroplating, laser coating, CVD, and PVD, and to enhance the tribological and corrosion properties. Cryogenic treatment is usually performed after CHT to further improve these properties. Components with friction surfaces require high surface hardness in order to resist wear. In this work, EN31 steel used in bearings, spline shafts, and tiller blades, is surface-hardened using gas tungsten arc (GTA). To further improve the hardness, cryogenic treatment was done. GTA torch uses thoriated tungsten (2%) electrode to apply the heat on the friction surface. The welding current and angle of the electrode tip were varied to obtain different heat inputs during surface hardening process. Cryogenic treatment was done for five different soaking periods at − 50 °C [shallow cryogenic treatment (SCT)] and − 196 °C [deep cryogenic treatment (DCT)]. Shallow cryogenic treatment was performed using dry ice, and deep cryogenic treatment was performed using liquid nitrogen. Micro-hardness and microstructures of the specimen were studied. Microstructure study shows that considerable amount of retained austenite has been transformed to plate martensite with precipitates of carbide particles, increasing the hardness of the surface. Surface hardness increases with current and soaking period. The maximum hardness is obtained at 200 A for all electrode tip angles. The maximum hardness is obtained at 15 h of soaking period. Specimens treated at − 190 °C were found to exhibit higher hardness than specimens treated at − 50 °C. Further, 200 A welding current with 45° electrode tip angle and 15 h of soaking period for both SCT and DCT is found to produce maximum hardness. © 2019, The Institution of Engineers (India).

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2018

N. Mohan and Dr. Sanjivi Arul, “Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Alloy Steel 16MnCr5”, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 5, pp. 25265 - 25275, 2018.[Abstract]


16MnCr5 is a low alloy steel which is widely used in manufacturing industrial and automobile components such as gears, shafts, crankshafts, etc. which are subjected to high wear. This, in turn, will lead to deviation from ideal working condition and hence will lead to reliability issues. In this work, an experimental investigation on the effect of cryogenic treatment on the mechanical properties of 16MnCr5 will be studied. In cryogenic treatment, materials are taken to sub-zero temperatures and kept therein for predetermined time periods. Based on the temperature up to which the material is taken to, cryogenic treatment is divided into two types: Shallow and Deep. Two different treatment paths were chosen for the study: Carburizing followed by cryogenic treatment and cryogenic treatment alone. The results revealed that carburized and then cryogenically treated 16MnCr5 samples showed an improvement in hardness and wear resistance whereas the toughness showed a gradual decrease with increase in soaking time. Cryogenic treatment as such did not bring any significant improvement in mechanical properties.

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2018

J. Abhinavaram, Shanmugasundaram A., Prashanth, R., S Jagadeesh, R. Sellamuthu, and Dr. Sanjivi Arul, “Study of Hardness and Wear Behaviour of Surface Modified AA 7075 with WC Using GTA”, Indian Journal of Engineering & Materials Sciences, vol. 25, no. 3, pp. 233 - 242 , 2018.[Abstract]


The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of tungsten carbide (WC) in increasing the hardness and improving the wear resistance of AA 7075 alloy. WC is reinforced into the surface of AA 7075 by using gas tungsten arc (GTA) as a heat source. Some of the GTA process parameters are maintained as constant, viz, contact-to-work distance and electrode tip angle, whereas the heat source current and the work speed are varied. With reference to the proper fusion of base metal, optimum GTA heat source parameter is finalized based on a number of trials. It is found that the hardness is reduced after the application of heat. To improve the properties, the alloy is subjected to heat treatment which included solution treatment, water quenching, and artificial aging. The hardness and wear behavior of the WC reinforced surface composite resulted in a positive trend. A comprehensive study on the microstructure of AA 7075 at different stages of the work is done using optical
microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDX analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD).

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2018

Shanmugasundaram A., Dr. Sanjivi Arul, and R. Sellamuthu, “Influence of SiC on the Hardness and Wear Properties of AA 2014 using GTA as Heat Source”, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 5, no. 8, pp. 16552 – 16564 , 2018.[Abstract]


The objective of this work is to improve the hardness and reduce the wear rate of AA 2014 by reinforcing Silicon Carbide (SiC) onto the surface of the base material using Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) as a heat source. Reduction of hardness on the base metal is observed after the application of heat using optimum process parameter. SiC particles of size 106 μm are deposited onto the surface of AA 2014. In order to improve the properties, the alloy is heat treated which includes solution treatment, water quenching and artificial aging. The Microhardness of the SiC reinforced and aged AA 2014 is found to be 35 % more than that of the base material. Wear tests were conducted and found that the wear rate is reduced by 75 % for the SiC reinforced AA 2014 surface when compared to the base metal. Characterization techniques like SEM, EDX and XRD are done to know the presence of SiC onto the surface of AA 2014 and the same is confirmed.

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2018

J. Abhinavaram, Shanmugasundaram A., R. Prashanth, S. Jagadeesh, Dr. Sanjivi Arul, and R. Sellamuthu, “Study of hardness and wear behavior of surface modified AA 7075 with tungsten carbide using GTA as a heat source”, Indian Journal of Engineering and Materials Sciences, vol. 25, pp. 233-242, 2018.[Abstract]


The aim of this work is to evaluate the role of tungsten carbide (WC) in increasing the hardness and improving the wear resistance of AA 7075 alloy. WC is reinforced into the surface of AA 7075 by using gas tungsten arc (GTA) as a heat source. Some of the GTA process parameters are maintained as constant, viz, contact-to-work distance and electrode tip angle, whereas the heat source current and the work speed are varied. With reference to the proper fusion of base metal, optimum GTA heat source parameter is finalized based on a number of trials. It is found that the hardness is reduced after the application of heat. To improve the properties, the alloy is subjected to heat treatment which included solution treatment, water quenching, and artificial aging. The hardness and wear behavior of the WC reinforced surface composite resulted in a positive trend. A comprehensive study on the microstructure of AA 7075 at different stages of the work is done using optical microscopy (OM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), EDX analysis and X-ray diffraction (XRD). © 2018, National Institute of Science Communication and Information Resources (NISCAIR). All rights reserved.

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2018

Chaanthini M. K. and Dr. Sanjivi Arul, “Effect of surface modification using gtaw as heat source and cryogenic treatment on the surface hardness and its prediction using artificial neural network”, Lecture Notes in Mechanical Engineering, vol. PartF7, pp. 185-196, 2018.[Abstract]


High-wear-resisting EN 31 bearing steel has been widely used to make components such as roller bearing, ball bearing, spline shaft, and other components like tiller blades, punches and dies are subjected to severe abrasion to require high surface hardness. To obtain high surface hardness, EN 31 steel is usually surface modified using various methods like conventional heat treatment (591 HV), cryogenic treatment (688 HV) and GMAW. But, there are no studies on surface modification of EN 31 using gas tungsten arc (GTA) heat source followed by cryogenic treatment. To improve the hardness further, surface alloying using gas tungsten arc followed by cryogenic treatment is done in this study. EN 31 steel is surface-hardened by using GTA heat source by varying the welding current, electrode tip angle and shallow and deep cryogenic treatments (SCT & DCT) by varying soaking time and temperature. Microstructures were studied and microhardness was measured. It is found that cryogenic treatment leads to formation of carbide particles in martensite matrix with reduced retained austenite which improves the microhardness from 258 to 898 HV after SCT and 1856 HV for DCT. Further, in this work, a back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN) which uses gradient descent learning algorithm is used to predict the microhardness of EN 31 steel for the entire ranges of parameters used in the experiments. The ANN model is trained and tested using 200 experiments done. The input parameters of the ANN model are 4 variables (welding current, electrode tip angle, cryogenic soaking time and temperature). Using MATLAB, a programme was developed and by varying the transfer function (tansig and logsig) different ANN models are constructed for the prediction of microhardness. This study shows that back-propagation artificial neural network (ANN) which uses gradient descent learning algorithm is very efficient for predicting the microhardness of EN 31 steel. © Springer Nature Singapore Pte Ltd. 2019.

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2018

Shanmugasundaram A., Dr. Sanjivi Arul, and R. Sellamuthu, “Study on the Effect of GTA Surface Melting and SiC Reinforcement on the Hardness, Wear and Corrosion Properties of AA 5086”, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 5, no. 2, pp. 6597-6606, 2018.[Abstract]


In this study an attempt is made towards the formation of surface composite comprises of Silicon Carbide (SiC) on to the surface of AA 5086 aluminium alloy using Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) as heat source. The effect on the hardness, wear and corrosion properties were evaluated. Except heat source current and torch speed the remaining parameters are kept constant. The variable process parameters are optimized according to the quality of fusion. The hardness of the SiC reinforced AA 5086 is 121 HV which is greater than the base metal hardness 101 HV by 20%. The wear rate of the surface modified AA 5086 was evaluated and found that it is reduced by 48%. The susceptibility of intergranular corrosion is determined by the mass losses of reinforced AA5086 and is less than that of the base metal. Characterization techniques like SEM, EDX and XRD is used. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

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2017

J. Eapen, Shanmugam Murugappan, and Dr. Sanjivi Arul, “A Study on Chip Morphology of Aluminum Alloy 6063 during Turning under Pre Cooled Cryogenic and Dry Environments”, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 4, pp. 7686 - 7693, 2017.[Abstract]


Chips are formed during turning. Chips take away most of the energy in the form of heat which is non productive. The chip handling and disposal is always a difficult process. The use of metal cutting fluids calls for better disposal management to due strict environment norms worldwide. Aluminium alloys are used extensively in aerospace and structural industries. Hence it becomes important to study about chip in terms of its shape, size and process of separation while turning. This work discusses about chip morphology of Aluminium alloy 6063, in terms of chip types and chip reduction coefficient in two different environments, namely cryogenic pre cooled environment using dry ice and dry turning environment. AA 6063 rods are pre-cooled in a closed chamber for 36 hours. Two types of inserts are used one being a high positive rake insert (CCGT 120408FC K10 –1)which is used for turning Aluminium alloy and another is a general purpose insert (CNMG120408 MP TT 5100)used very commonly in workshops. Feed rates of 0.2, 0.315, and 0.4 mm/rev and Cutting speeds of 70,110,175 m/min are chosen for experiment with a constant depth of cut of 2.5mm.

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2017

Shanmugasundaram A., Dr. Sanjivi Arul, and R. Sellamuthu, “Effect of flyash on the surface hardness of AA 6063 using GTA as a heat source”, Metallurgical Research & Technology, EDP Sciences France , vol. 114, p. 511, 2017.[Abstract]


Effect of reinforcing flyash to the surface of AA 6063 aluminium alloy using Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) as a heat source and corresponding hardness variation have been studied. Heat source parameters such as current, electrode tip distance and tip angle are kept as constant and the work speed is varied. Reduction of microhardness is observed in the fusion zone after applying the heat on the specimens without flyash. Flyash of 38, 75 and 90 μm particle sizes were deposited onto the surface of AA 6063 alloy specimen using GTA as a heat source. The thickness of the modified layer is found to be 1.02 mm. The addition of flyash increased the hardness to that of the base metal. Further artificial aging increased the microhardness of the modified surface layer significantly compared to the base metal. The resulting modified layer was characterized by energy dispersive x-ray spectrometry (EDX) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) technique. © EDP Sciences, 2017.

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2017

Shanmugasundaram A., Dr. Sanjivi Arul, and R. Sellamuthu, “Investigating the Effect of WC on the Hardness and Wear Behaviour of Surface Modified AA 6063”, Transactions of the Indian Institute of Metals, vol. 71, no. 1, pp. 117-125, 2017.[Abstract]


The objective of this work is to reinforce Tungsten Carbide (WC) onto the surface of AA 6063 aluminium alloy using Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) as heat source and investigate the hardness and wear properties. Based on number of trials, optimum GTA heat source parameters are finalized with reference to the proper fusion of base metal. It is found that the hardness is reduced after the application of heat. After the reinforcement of WC, the hardness returns back to the base metal value. In order to further to improve the properties, the reinforced alloy is heat Treated. The Microhardness of the reinforced and aged AA 6063 is increased by 50% with respect to base metal. The wear resistance of the reinforced surface is improved by 52% with respect to base metal. Characterization techniques like SEM, EDX and XRD are done and the presence of WC is confirmed. © 2017 The Indian Institute of Metals - IIM

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2016

R. Saravanan, Srihari, S., Arvind, A., Sreeranj, P., Dheeraj, K., Sellamuthu, R., and Dr. Sanjivi Arul, “Microstructure, Hardness and Wear Rate of A356 Aluminium Alloy Surface Alloyed with Nitrided Titanium using GTA”, Indian Journal of Science and Technology, vol. 9, 2016.[Abstract]


Background/Objectives: The study aims to improve surface properties of aluminium A356 alloy by surface alloying it with nitrided titanium, in a nitrogen environment, using Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) as heat source. Methods/Statistical Analysis: Nitrided titanium sheets were surface alloyed with cast aluminium A356 blocks, in nitrogen environment, with GTA as heat source for melting. The cross-sectional microstructure of the specimens was studied using inverted metallurgical microscope. Further analysis was carried out using SEM/EDS to identify the formation of nitrides and intermetallic compounds. The hardness of the specimens was measured using Vickers hardness tester and the wear rate was determined using pin-on-disc wear tester. Findings: Microstructure analysis revealed a uniform and granular refined structure in the modified layer compared to the coarse and dendritic structure of the cast block. EDS analysis indicated the formation of hard-intermetallic compounds. The hardness was measured to be highest at the surface of the central fusion zone, with a maximum value of 656 HV while as-cast aluminium block exhibited only 76 HV. The measured wear rate was 10×10 ⁻⁴ mm ³/m for the modified layer, compared to 52×10 ⁻⁴ mm ³/m of the substrate. Alongside, the loss in weight after wear dropped by 4 mg. The coefficient of friction of the modified surface showed a constant trend during the wear-off period. The enhancement in these surface properties is attributed to the formation of nitrides and other intermetallic compounds that in the modified layer during surface alloying. Additionally, the use of GTA as heat source renders the surface alloying process to be economically feasible relative to other employable methods. Applications/Improvements: The devised surface alloying method used to enhance the surface properties of A356 is cheap, flexible and effective and finds intensive application in marine, automotive and manufacturing sectors.

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2016

Dr. Ilangovan S., Dr. Sanjivi Arul, and Shanmugasundaram A., “Effect of Zn and Cu Content on Microstructure, Hardness and Tribological Properties of Cast Al-Zn-Cu Alloys”, International Journal of Engineering Research in Africa, vol. 27, pp. 1–10, 2016.[Abstract]


Microstructure, micro-hardness and wear properties of Aluminium-Zinc-Copper (Al-Zn-Cu) alloys of various chemical compositions are investigated. Stir casting process is used to prepare the various alloy compositions with permanent metallic mould. Six different alloy compositions were developed by varying Zn and Cu content in aluminium matrix. The wear and frictional properties were studied using Pin-on-Disc wear tester in dry sliding condition under normal atmosphere. The developed Al-Zn-Cu alloy has inter-metallic stable $\texttheta$ (CuAl2) phase in the inter-dendrite region and is due to the addition of Cu from 1 to 5 wt. % in 60Al-(40-x) Zn alloy. When the Cu composition increases up to 2 wt %, the corresponding hardness increases significantly and is due to the formation of Cu-rich $\texttheta$ phase and also due to the solid solution hardening of Cu in Al-Zn alloy matrix. But after 2 wt % Cu addition it is observed that the hardness increase is marginal. Wear rate (WR) and specific wear rate (SWR) were increases with increase of load and sliding velocity and decreases with Cu addition. Coefficient of friction (COF) remains constant for entire load and velocity for each alloy. However, when the alloys were tested at elevated temperatures, it was found that initially WR, SWR and COF decreases with temperature and then increases rapidly.

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2016

Dr. Ilangovan S., Shanmugasundaram A., and Dr. Sanjivi Arul, “Influence of Specimen Temperature on Wear Characteristics of AA6063 Aluminium Alloy”, Journal of Surface Science and Technology, vol. 32, pp. 91-96, 2016.[Abstract]


Dry sliding wear performance of aluminium alloy (AA 6063) was studied by varying applied normal load, sliding velocity and varying specimen temperatures from 50 to 150 °C. The results signify that the wear increases as the load increases from 10 to 20 N, while it decreases when the sliding velocity of the specimen increases from 1 to 2 m/s at room temperature. As the temperature of the specimen increases, the wear rate increases marginally at initial stage and then increases rapidly for a constant load and velocity. The specific wear was found to be decreased when load and sliding velocity were increased. However, in the case of varying specimen temperature condition, particularly at elevated temperature of the specimen, the specific wear showed an increasing trend. Coefficient of friction (COF) was nearly stable to both load and velocity, but it is marginally vary when temperature of the specimen increases from 50 to 100 °C and it decreases rapidly from 100 to 150 °C.

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2015

R. Devanathan, Dr. Sanjivi Arul, Dr. Ilangovan S., and Shanmugasundaram A., “Study on the effect of Shallow Cryogenic treatment on Mechanical properties of GTAW welded AA 6061”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research. (IJAER), vol. 10, no. 8, pp. 21091-21099, 2015.[Abstract]


The Aluminium alloy AA 6061 loses its hardness significantly after Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). The effect of post welded shallow cryogenic treatment (SCT) on hardness and micro structure of AA6061-T6 weldment is studied in this work.The GTAW welding was carried out with different heat inputs by varyingthe welding speed. The hardnessand microstructure were evaluated for as-welded and post weld shallow cryogenic treated specimens.It is found that the hardness of the post weldedSCT AA6061–T6 specimens increased significantlydue to the reactivationprecipitation sequencein the welded region.

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2015

N. K. Robin, Dr. Ilangovan S., Dr. Sanjivi Arul, and Shanmugasundaram A., “Influence of nickel content on mechanical properties of aluminium-boron carbide hybrid composite”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, vol. 10, pp. 32311-32320, 2015.[Abstract]


In this work the influence of nickel (Ni) content on mechanical properties of aluminium matrix composite (AMC) was studied. Boron carbide was used as (B4C) reinforcement with aluminium (6061-T6) alloy. The nickel content was varied from 2 wt. % to 8 wt. % keeping boron carbide as constant value of 10 wt. %. The composite blocks were produced by stir casting method. The flux (K2TiF6) was added during melting process to improve the wettability of boron carbide content in the matrix. The dispersion of boron carbide and nickel particles were found to be homogeneous in the matrix by studying the microstructure using an optical microscope. It was observed that as the nickel content increases from 2 wt. % to 8 wt. %, the hardness value correspondingly increases from 121 VHN to 193 VHN. Similarly, the tensile strength also increases from 192 MPa to 305 MPa. The % elongation decreases from 16 to 9 with respect to increase in nickel content. The tensile strength increases and % elongation decreases with hardness of the alloy. © Research India Publications.

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2015

A. Ramasundaram, S. Ilangovan, Dr. Sanjivi Arul, and Shanmugasundaram A., “Influence of specimen temperature on wear characteristics of Al-Zn-Mg castings”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, vol. 10, pp. 15417-15428, 2015.[Abstract]


Al-6Zn-4Mg alloy blocks were prepared by stir casting process. The wear study was conducted by varying load, velocity and specimen temperature using pin-on-disc wear tester. It was observed that the wear rate (WR) increases with load at a constant velocity. The WR at constant load is less in the velocity range of 1.5 to 2 m/s. compared to the velocity range of 1 to 1.5 m/s. The specific wear rate (SWR) decreases rapidly between 10 to 20 N and marginally from 20 and 50 N. The SWR increases linearly with sliding velocity. The decrease in wear resistance is significant between 10 and 20 N and is marginal from 20 to 50 N. The wear resistance decreases linearly with increasing velocity. The WR decreases rapidly as the temperature of the specimen increases from 50 to 90ºC and further increase of specimen temperature from 90 to 125ºC, increases WR rapidly. The SWR also varied similar to WR versus temperature. The wear resistance of the specimen shows a reverse trend as compared with the WR and SWR. The variation of coefficient of friction (COF) with load, velocity and specimen temperature shows a marginal variation. © Research India Publications.

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2015

S. Murugappan, Dr. Sanjivi Arul, and Narayanan, S. K., “An Experimental Study on Turning of AL6063 under Cryogenic Pre Cooled Condition”, Procedia CIRP, vol. 35, pp. 61-66, 2015.[Abstract]


One of the major issues faced while machining Aluminium and its alloys is built up edge and hence reduced tool life and surface finish. Turning temperature and friction have to be reduced to avoid sticking and built up edges. This work deals turning of AL 6063 rod at two environments a) Pre cooling to sub zero temperature using dry ice and b) Dry turning at room temperature. Depth of cut is kept constant at 2.5 mm. Turning inserts CNMG 120408 MP TT 5100 and CCGT 120408 FC K10 - 1 were used. Cutting speeds of 70, 110, 175 m/minand feed rates of0.2, 0.315 and 0.4 mm/rev were used. The surface roughness, Ra, Rz, & material ratio Mr1 & Mr2, tool wear are measured. Increase in productivity and cost saving were evident while using CNMG 120408 MP TT 5100 under pre cooled turning environment. © 2015 The Authors. Published by Elsevier B.V.

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2015

S. Murugappan, Dr. Sanjivi Arul, and Narayanan, S. K., “Quality assessment of drilled holes in Al 6063 plate at sub zero temperature”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, vol. 10, pp. 31329-31340, 2015.[Abstract]


Drilling plays a key role in machining operation. The quality of hole is measured based on many metrics. Heat created during drilling affects the hole quality. A 11.9 mm (15/32”) diameter hole is drilled in 10mm thick AL 6063 plate at two different environments, at room temperature without coolant and another at-55°C Celsius using dry ice as pre cooling agent. The hole is drilled at nine different combinations of speed and feed using three cutting speeds 25, 40 & 66 m/min and feed rate 0.04, 0.08 & 0.15 mm/rev. Hole quality is assessed based on diameter deviation, conicity, surface Roughness Ra and Rz. The effect of cooling at sub zero temperature is discussed based on above quality metrics. © Research India Publications.

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2015

R. J. Kiran, Dr. Sanjivi Arul, Dr. Ilangovan S., and Shanmugasundaram A., “Study on Effect of Various Cutting Fluids During Turning Operations of AISI 1016 steel”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, vol. 10, pp. 16825-16832, 2015.[Abstract]


High cutting temperatures affect the tool life, surface finish of the component and chip formation. In order to reduce the cutting temperature, suitable cutting fluids should be selected. In this work, water, coconut oil, compressed air, mixture of water and oil at room temperature and mixture of water and oil at 0 °C were used as cutting fluids during turning operation of AISI 1016 steel. In addition to this, dry turning was also performed. Turning operations were done using HSS cutting tool at different spindle speeds, while feed and depth of cut were kept constant. The influence of various cutting fluids on the cutting temperature, surface roughness and chip morphology were studied and compared. At minimum cutting temperature, reduced surface roughness and continuous chips were noticed when a mixture of water and oil were used as cutting fluid at 0 °C. © Research India Publications.

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2015

T. S. V. Dheemanth, Rahul, K., Suman, N., Devanathan, R., and Dr. Sanjivi Arul, “Effect of shallow cryogenic treatment on mechanical properties of AISI 1018 steel”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, vol. 10, pp. 30901-30910, 2015.[Abstract]


In this work the effect of shallow cryogenic treatment (SCT) on mechanical properties of AISI 1018 steel were studied. Experimental studies were conducted on the carburized, shallow cryogenic treated and untreated AISI 1018 steel specimens. Carburizing is done at 9200°C, kept at that temperature for 10 hours. Shallow cryogenic treatment (-770°C) is performed on carburized specimen in order to improve mechanical properties. Mechanical properties like tensile, hardness, wear test were performed, it shows improved results on shallow cryogenic treated and case carburized steel material compared to untreated material and non-carburized material. This is due to transformation of some amount of retained austenite (in carburized specimen near case alone) to martensite. © Research India Publications.

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2015

S. Murugappan and Dr. Sanjivi Arul, “A study on effect of sub zero temperature cooling on surface roughness of turned EN8 steel rod”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, vol. 10, pp. 21549-21563, 2015.[Abstract]


Achieving ideal surface roughness is always a challenge in machining industry. An experimental study was conducted on dry turning of EN8 (AISI 1040) steel rod in two different turning environments namely pre cooling to Sub Zero temperature up to-45°Cand room temperature in dry condition using four different cutting speeds 30, 49, 78, 123 metres/minute and feeds 0.18,0.315,0.4& 0.5 mm/revolution respectively at 1.5mm depth of cut. Dry ice was used for pre cooling the steel rod. The various aspects of surface roughness are studied and a regression model is created for predicting the surface roughness. © Research India Publications.

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2015

R. Devanathan, Dr. Sanjivi Arul, Dr. Ilangovan S., and Shanmugasundaram A., “Study On The Effect of Shallow Cryogenic Treatment on Hardness and Microstructure of Gtawwelded Aa6061 Specimens”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, vol. 10, pp. 21091-21099, 2015.[Abstract]


The Aluminium alloy AA 6061 loses its hardness significantly after Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW). The effect of post welded shallow cryogenic treatment (SCT) on hardness and micro structure of AA6061-T6 weldment is studied in this work.The GTAW welding was carried out with different heat inputs by varyingthe welding speed. The hardnessand microstructure were evaluated for as-welded and post weld shallow cryogenic treated specimens.It is found that the hardness of the post weldedSCT AA6061–T6 specimens increased significantlydue to the reactivationprecipitation sequencein the welded region. © Research India Publications.

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2015

K. K. Suresh, Dr. Ilangovan S., Dr. Sanjivi Arul, and Shanmugasundaram A., “Effect of zn/cu content on microstructure and mechanical properties of al-zn-cu cast alloys”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, vol. 10, pp. 9325-9333, 2015.[Abstract]


A binary Al-Zn and five ternary Al-Zn-Cu alloys were produced using stir casting process by varying the Cu contents from 0-5 wt. % and keeping Al content as constant value of 60 wt. %. It was found that the micro-hardness and the ultimate tensile strength of the alloys increases significantly with increasing Cu content up to 2 wt. % which is due to solid solution hardening of Cu content in Al-Zn alloy. Further increase of Cu content results in the formation of hard and brittle θ phase which weakens the inter-dendrite region and marginally increases the hardness and ultimate tensile strength of the alloy. The percentage elongation of the alloy system decreases continuously with addition of Cu content. © Research India Publications.

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2015

S. R. Kasthuri Raj, Dr. Ilangovan S., Dr. Sanjivi Arul, and Shanmugasundaram A., “Effect of variation in Al/Si content on mechanical properties of Zn-Al-Si alloys”, International Journal of Applied Engineering Research, vol. 10, no. 2, pp. 2723-2731, 2015.[Abstract]


An investigation was carried out to find the effect of Al/Si content on mechanical properties in Zn-Al alloys. Six different alloy compositions were cast with Zn at 60 wt. % and Si varying from 0 wt. % to 5 wt. %. The alloys were prepared using stir casting process and poured into permanent mould metallic die. Micro-hardness, ultimate tensile strength and percentage elongation of the alloy specimens were measured. The microstructure of the alloy without Si content showed the presence of Al rich α-dendrites and inter-dendritic Zn-rich η phases. The addition of Si content up to 2 wt. % to the alloy system showed uniformly distributed discrete particles of Si in addition to the features of the Si-free alloy. However, when the Si content of the alloys goes beyond 2 wt. %, the Si particles formed large clusters. It was found that the hardness and ultimate tensile strength of the alloy increased with increase of Si content up to 3 wt. % and then decreased when Si content increased further. The percentage elongation decreases up to 3 wt. % of Si and then increases. It shows that the Si content has significant effect on mechanical properties of Zn-Al alloy. © Research India Publications.

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2014

A. M. Xavior, Yarlagadda, P. K. D. V., Akhil, K. T., Dr. Sanjivi Arul, and R. Sellamuthu, “The Effect of Heat Treatment and Aging Process on Microstructure and Mechanical Properties of A356 Aluminium Alloy Sections in Casting”, Procedia Engineering - Part of special issue: 12th Global Congress on Manufacturing and Management, vol. 97, pp. 1676 - 1682, 2014.[Abstract]


Aluminium A356 alloy is widely used at automobile and aircraft industries in the form of cast component with varying section size. This study investigates how the microstructure and mechanical properties of different section size vary before and after heat treatment and aging processes. Aluminium ingot is melted using a furnace and poured in to the mold having mold cavities of varying dimensions. Cast components are heat treated as per ASTM standard B917-01 at a temperature of 537°C for 12hours followed by a temperature of 155° for 5hours. In order to investigate the effect of heat treatment and aging processes microstructure and mechanical properties such as impact strength, hardness, and tensile strength were analysed as-cast condition and after heat treatment and aging process. More »»

2014

P. D. P. R. Ha Vardhan, .Dheepak, S., Dr. Sanjivi Arul, and .T.Aditya3, P., “Development Of Automated Aerial Pesticide Sprayer”, IJRET: International Journal of Research in Engineering and Technology , vol. 3, pp. 856–861, 2014.[Abstract]


The World Health Organization estimates that there are 3 million cases of pesticide poison in each year and up to 220,000 deaths, primarily in developing countries. Organophosphates and carbonates, affect the nervous system. Others may irritate the skin or eyes. Some pesticides maybe carcinogens Others may affect the hormone or endocrine system in the body. Children, and indeed any young and developing organisms, are particularly vulnerable to the harmful effects of pesticides. Even very low levels of exposure during development may have adverse health effects. Pesticide exposure can cause a range of neurological health effects such as memory loss, loss of coordination, reduced speed of response to stimuli, reduced visual ability, altered or uncontrollable mood and general behavior, and reduced motor skills. An Automated Aerial Pesticide Sprayer is a basically a combination of a Blimp on a Quad copter frame. This project is to mainly overcome the ill-effects of pesticides on human beings(manual pesticide sprayers) and also to cover larger areas of fields while spraying pesticides in a short span of time when compared to a manual sprayer.

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2014

H. G Reddy, Dr. Sanjivi Arul, and Sellamuthu, R., “Improving Surface Hardness of Mild Steel Plates by Addition of Silicon Carbide Using Gas Tungsten Arc as Heat Source”, Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 592–594, pp. 879–882, 2014.[Abstract]


An attempt has been made to improve the surface hardness property of mild steel by developing a composite layer on the surface of mild steel using gas tungsten arc as heat source. Silicon Carbide was placed on the surface using a binder and heat was applied using gas tungsten arc. Variation of Silicon content with the weld current parameters was studied. The variation of microhardness with Silicon content on the surface was studied. Optimum parameter for attaining maximum surface hardness property using GTAW (Gas Tungsten Arc Welding) has been found.

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2014

G. S. Kumar, R. Sellamuthu, and Dr. Sanjivi Arul, “Determination of melting efficiency of mild steel in GTA welding process”, Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 592-594, pp. 139-143, 2014.[Abstract]


In this study, a model for the melting efficiency of Gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) was developed and validated using experiments. It was found that the melting efficiency increases with current, speed, arc length and electrode tip angle. The melting efficiency is found to be stable with increase in electrode diameter. The results were compared with existing studies. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

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2014

V. Gopi, R. Sellamuthu, and Dr. Sanjivi Arul, “Measurement of hardness, wear rate and coefficient of friction of surface refined Al-Cu alloy”, Procedia Engineering, vol. 97, pp. 1355-1360, 2014.[Abstract]


The effect of surface refining process (SRP) on hardness, wear rate and coefficient of friction of Al-4Cu (Cu 4wt. %, Al balance) was measured in this study. Cast samples of the alloy composition Al-4wt% Cu were prepared for the purpose of this study. Surface refining was conducted using Gas Tungsten Arc (GTA) as heat source. Microstructural evaluation was done using metallurgical microscope. Vicker's Hardness tester was used to measure the hardness. Pin on disc wear tester was used to measure the wear rate and coefficient of friction under as per ASTM G99. Hardness was found to increase from 55 HV for substrate to 104HV for that of modified layer. Wear rate was found to decrease with increase in hardness. Further wear rate increased with increase in load whereas it remained constant with varying speeds. COF was found to be constant for all test conditions. The heat treatment is found to have an impact on the hardness of the modified layer. The hardness was increased from 104 HV for the as refined condition to 162 HV for the heat treated condition, an observation that was not previously reported in the literature. The results obtained in this study are comparable with that of previous studies. However, the aged samples showed a superior hardness when compared to the data shown in the previous e-beam/laser studies. © 2014 Published by Elsevier Ltd. More »»

2014

R. B Chandra, Dr. Sanjivi Arul, and Sellamuthu, R., “Effect of electrode diameter and input current on gas tungsten arc welding heat distribution parameters”, Procedia Materials Science, vol. 5, pp. 2369–2375, 2014.[Abstract]


The microstructure and mechanical properties of a GTA weldment depends on the physical and thermal properties of the workpiece, the arc efficiency and the area of heat incident on the workpiece surface. In this study the variation in area of heat incident on the workpiece surface is found to be dependent on change in electrode diameter and welding current. The analysis was done by examining the arc parameters obtained during GTA welding process. The arc parameters were obtained by capturing the arc image by using a gray scale CCD camera and it was processed by Sherlock machine vision software. A regression equation was developed by relating experimentally measured arc parameters and welding parameters like electrode diameter and welding current.

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2014

K. T. Akhil, Dr. Sanjivi Arul, and Sellamuthu, R., “The effect of section size on cooling rate, microstructure and mechanical properties of A356 aluminium alloy in casting”, Procedia Materials Science, vol. 5, pp. 362–368, 2014.[Abstract]


This paper reports the cooling characteristics of cast components with varying section size. In this study aluminium alloy A356 is selected because it is widely used at automotive and aircraft industries in the form of components with varying section size. This study investigates how cooling rate and mechanical properties vary with varying section size. Experiment is performed that aluminium alloy ingot is heated in muffle furnace and poured in the moulds having mould cavity of varying dimensions. Cooling rate was measured using K type thermocouple during solidification of aluminium alloy. In order to investigate the effect of cooling rate on microstructure and mechanical properties microstructure analysis, impact test, tensile test, hardness test were performed. The results showed that mechanical properties of cast component of smaller section size are better. This is due to fast cooling rate of smaller section cast component make refining of the grain size of the aluminium alloy.

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2014

R. Radhika, Gupta, S. K., Rammohan, N., and Dr. Sanjivi Arul, “Dynamic control of a pulsatile jet propelled aquatic robot”, Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 592-594, pp. 2287-2291, 2014.[Abstract]


Deriving inspiration from the propulsion methods of squids, a pulsatile jet propulsion system is adopted in a robotic model. A squid-like direction control mechanism, which can direct the jet along any direction on a hemispherical work volume, is also implemented. To obtain a suitable robot velocity (Ũv) and a propulsive efficiency (ηp) for testing this mechanism, the stroke ratio (L/D) and outlet diameter are varied and the Ũv and the ηp of various alternatives are estimated experimentally using vision analysis. A Stroke ratio of 3.78 and an outlet diameter of 25.4 mm are found suitable and employed for testing the mechanism. When the jet is deflected by 60° in the horizontal plane, the robot rotates about its centroid, signifying excellent maneuverability. Reverse motion is also demonstrated by removing inlet valves and blocking the outlet through the direction control mechanism. The performance of the direction control mechanism indicates that the robotic model is a feasible alternative to conventional screw-propelled aquatic robots. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

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2014

A. Prabakaran, R. Sellamuthu, and Dr. Sanjivi Arul, “Heat transfer modelling and investigation of the effect of pulse frequency and current in pulsed current gas tungsten arc welding”, Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 592-594, pp. 395-399, 2014.[Abstract]


Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW)involves several process parameters. In Pulsed Current GTAW frequency of pulse and pulse to time ratio differentiates the characteristics of weld pool geometry of from GTAW. In the present work a simple heat transfer model for Pulsed Current GTA welding was developed and the weld pool dimensions were experimentally verified with AISI 1020 steel. Relationship between speed and pulsed current frequency on weld pool dimension was studied. Weld pool dimension of pulsed and non-pulsed GTAW is studied. © (2014) Trans Tech Publications, Switzerland.

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2013

V. V and Dr. Sanjivi Arul, “Determination of Surgical Spot Coordinates from CT Scan Images of Brain to Position the Stereotactic Neurosurgical Manipulator”, Amrita Bio Quest 2013, 2013.

2013

Dr. Sanjivi Arul and R. Sellamuthu, “Development of a regression model relating experimentally measured arc parameters and gas tungsten arc welding process variables”, International Journal of Computational Materials Science and Surface Engineering, vol. 5, pp. 177-188, 2013.[Abstract]


In order to solve the heat transfer model of GTA welding process, the physical and the thermal properties of the workpiece, the heat source efficiency and the area of heat incident on the workpiece surface are required. In this work, the arc dimensions were measured experimentally with respect to current, speed, electrode tip angle and electrode distance for autogenous GTA welding. The arc parameters were fitted against welding variables using regression analysis. The projected arc area is found to increase with current and electrode distance and to decrease with electrode tip angle whereas it is found to be independent of speed. The shape of the projected arc area is observed to be semi-circular in the front and semi-elliptical in the rear for moving heat source. The regression equation developed can be readily applied in estimating the area of heat incident for solving the heat transfer equation. Copyright © 2013 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd.

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2011

Dr. Sanjivi Arul and R. Sellamuthu, “Application of a simplified simulation method to the determination of arc efficiency of gas tungsten arc welding (GTAW) and experimental validation”, International Journal of Computational Materials Science and Surface Engineering, vol. 4, pp. 265-280, 2011.[Abstract]


To overcome the difficulty of solving a complex heat and fluid flow model of GTAW for predicting temperature distribution, cooling rate and weld pool geometry, a simplified simulation method has been followed in this study. The arc parameters as a measure of the heat distribution required for simulation were experimentally obtained from the arc images. The net heat flux was determined by the application of a simplified simulation method as opposed to calorimetric/genetic algorithm techniques used previously and validated experimentally. The arc efficiency was calculated as the ratio of net heat flux to the input power. The heat distribution parameter is found to be a function of current and independent of speed whereas the arc efficiency is independent of both current and travel speed. The value of arc efficiency determined in this study compares well with the data of previous studies, confirming the viability of the simulation method. Copyright © 2011 Inderscience Enterprises Ltd. More »»

2007

S. .Remya and Dr. Sanjivi Arul, “Vision Based Weld Bead Measurement”, National conference on Vision and Information technology- NCVIT07 Government college of Technology, Coimbatore, 2007.

2007

G. K., Dr. Sanjivi Arul, and P.V., M., “A Methodology for Reducing Quality Loss and Rework in a Three-part Selective Assembly-A Case Study”, International Journal on Advanced Manufacturing System, vol. 10, pp. 65–73, 2007.

2001

Ranjan, Jayanthi,, and Dr. Sanjivi Arul, “Online Teaching”, University News, vol. 39(3), pp. 12-17, 2001.

Publication Type: Conference Proceedings

Year of Publication Title

2018

P. A. Samuel and Dr. Sanjivi Arul, “Effect of Cryogenic Treatment on the Mechanical Properties of Low Carbon Steel IS 2062”, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 5. Elsevier Ltd, pp. 25065-25074, 2018.[Abstract]


The aim of this study is to investigate the effect of the cryogenic treatment on the properties of low carbon steel IS 2062 material. This material is generally used in heat exchangers, marine engineering, manufacturing of pumps and valves, oil and gas equipment manufacturing, structural engineering applications, etc.The specimens when subjected to shallow cryogenic treatment (SCT) and deep cryogenic treatment (DCT), the hardness and the wear resistance decreased. When the specimens were subjected to carburization process, to increase the carbon content,the hardness and the wear resistance were found to increase due to increase in martensite. Cryogenic treatments were done on the both carburized and non-carburized specimens with different soaking periods to investigate its effect on hardness, wear resistance and impact strength. It was found that there was a considerable increases hardness and wear resistance and a drop in impact strength. The increase in hardness and wear resistance are due to the presence of secondary carbide precipitates and the conversion of retained austenite to martensite during rapid quenching process. The hardness and wear resistance were found to be better when the carburized specimens were subjected to DCT than SCT. Soaking period of the cryogenic treatments had considerable effect on the hardness, wear rate and impact strength of the specimen. © 2018 Elsevier Ltd.

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2018

E. Naveen, Dr. Ilangovan S., and Dr. Sanjivi Arul, “Influence of Homogenization Temperature on Mechanical Properties from Outer to Inner Zone of Al–Cu–Si Alloy Castings”, Proceedings of the International conference on Engineering Materials, Metallurgy and Manufacturing (ICEMMM2018). 2018.

2018

K. T. Akhil and Dr. Sanjivi Arul, “Optimization of Squeeze Casting Process Parameters Using Taguchi in LM13 Matrix B4C Reinforced Composites”, IOP Conference Series: Materials Science and Engineering, vol. 310. Institute of Physics Publishing, 2018.[Abstract]


Aluminium metal matrix composite has widely used in aerospace and automobile industry due to its high strength to weight ratio. Aluminium LM13 matrix B4C reinforced composites are mainly manufactured by Squeeze casting process. The present work optimizes squeeze casting process parameters using Taguchi method. The control factors used for the experiments were Squeeze Pressure, Die Preheat Temperature and weight percentage of Boron Carbide (B4C) along with multiple performance characteristic of Hardness, Ultimate Tensile Strength (UTS) and Yield Strength (YS). The L27 orthogonal array was used for experimental design. Analysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to determine the significant factor and found out that Squeeze pressure is the most significant factor followed by percentage of B4C. © Published under licence by IOP Publishing Ltd.

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2017

M. K. Chaanthini, Murugappan, S., and Dr. Sanjivi Arul, “Study on Hole Quality in Drilling AA 6063 Plate under Cryogenic Pre-Cooling Environment”, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 4. Elsevier Ltd, pp. 7476-7483, 2017.[Abstract]


Aluminium 6063 alloy is known for high quality surface finish, strength to weight ratio and good resistance to corrosion. It is extensively used in architectural components, seamless and structural tubes and pipes, tubes and pipes for irrigation, heat sinks. Drilling is cheapest machining operation and constitutes 30% of total machining processes. Quality of drilled hole is important to save cost and time by controlling or reducing further processing viz. burr removal, reaming, boring etc. This study deals with the investigation of drilling AA 6063 at two different drilling environments. One is at room temperature without coolant and other is at shallow cryogenic temperature using dry ice. A hole is drilled with 11.9 mm diameter in AA 6063 plate of 10 mm thickness. Drilling was carried out in nine different combinations of cutting parameters at two different environments. The three different levels of cutting speed and feed rate are 25, 40, 66 m/min and 0.04, 0.08, 0.15 mm/rev. The advantages and disadvantages of different cooling environment are studied in terms of quality of burr by classifying it as per standards. Micro hardness on the top surface and cross sectioned surface of drilled plate, surface quality of the drilled hole are studied for two different cooling environments. The quality of hole is co-related with measured temperature. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

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2017

K. T. Akhil, Varghese, J., Vinoj, K., Shunmugesh, K., Dr. Sanjivi Arul, and R. Sellamuthu, “Influence of heat Treatment and aging process on LM13 Aluminium Alloy Cast Sections: An Experimental Study”, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 4. Elsevier Ltd, pp. 7194-7201, 2017.[Abstract]


LM13 Aluminium alloy of variable section sizes have been extensively used in the automotive and aerospace industry. This paper reports the influence of heat Treatment and aging process on the microstructure, mechanical properties of LM13 aluminium alloy sections. Experiment is performed by melting of Aluminium ingot using heat treatment furnace and poured into sand mould cavity of varying section sizes. Microstructure, mechanical properties like hardness, tensile strength and impact strength were measured during as-cast, heat treated and aged condition. ASTM standard B917-01 was followed for heat treatment of LM13 Aluminium Alloy. Cast section was kept at 537°C for 12 hrs for heat treatment, followed by aging at a temperature of 155°C for 5 hrs. The result obtained indicates that at as-cast condition, microstructure changes from coarse to fine with decrease in section size. It was also observed that, mechanical properties also improve with decrease in section size. At heat treated and aged condition, it was observed that almost similar microstructure was observed. Further, the mechanical properties were improved when compared to as-cast condition and variation is irrespective to section size. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

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2017

S. Murugappan and Dr. Sanjivi Arul, “Effect of Cryogenic Pre cooling on Chip Reduction Co-efficient during Turning of EN8 Steel Rod”, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 4. Elsevier Ltd, pp. 8848-8855, 2017.[Abstract]


Chip plays a key role in turning. One of the parameter for characterization of chip is chip reduction co-efficient which determines forces involved and in turn Energy consumption. Energy consumption during turning and chip reduction co-efficient are directly proportional. 95% of energy while turning is spent on Heat loss. Due to higher speed, Feed and depth of cut along with material removal rate, the heat produced during turning is also increased. Hence efforts are made to reduce chip reduction co-efficient to reduce heat produced and Energy consumption. An experiment was conducted on turning of EN8 (AISI 1040) steel rod at different speeds and feeds with constant depth of cut of 1.5mm under two different environments namely cryogenic cooling environment using dry ice and dry turning environment. Chip reduction co-efficient found to be significantly lesser in dry ice cooled turning environment than room temperature turning environment at higher cutting speeds and feed rates which reduces the main cutting force. The dry ice pre cooling also helps in achieving sustainable manufacturing. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd.

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2017

T. G. Unnikrishnan, Paul, C., R. Sellamuthu, and Dr. Sanjivi Arul, “An investigation on the effects of Co, Ti and Si on microstructure, hardness and wear properties of AlCuNiFe based entropy alloys”, Materials Today: Proceedings, vol. 4. Elsevier Ltd, pp. 178-187, 2017.[Abstract]


An investigation was carried out to understand the effects of Co, Ti and Si additions to the AlCuNiFe entropy alloys on the microstructure, hardness and wear properties. The entropy alloy samples were prepared by an arc melting process under an argon atmosphere. Hardness and wear rate were measured using a microhardness tester and a Pin-On-Disc wear tester respectively. EDAX and XRD analyses were also carried out. The entropy alloys showed a high hardness and a low wear rate compared to several conventional alloys. Si and Ti contribute significantly to the increase in the hardness when compared to Co in the AlCuNiFe system. Si tends to form a separate phase due to the effect of entropy of mixing. The results of this study are comparable to those of previous works. © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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2016

R. Devanathan, Dr. Sanjivi Arul, Venkatamuni, T., Yuvarajan, D., and D. Selvam, C., “The Effect of Sub-Zero Treatment on Mechanical Properties of GTAW Welded AA6082”, Applied Mechanics and Materials, vol. 852. Trans Tech Publications Ltd, pp. 349-354, 2016.[Abstract]


The consequence of sub-zero treatment on the mechanical properties of welded AA6082-T6 by Gas Tungsten Arc Welding (GTAW) which in turn softens the heat concentrated welded region owing to dissolution of the strengthening precipitates. The sub-zero i.e. Shallow Cryogenic Treatment (SCT) is carried out on GTAW welded plate having a thickness of 6 mm at -77°C by varying the electrode travel speed and sub-zero treatment periods. Welded region of AA6082 were tested for hardness and microstructure by adapting three different conditions such as welded, post weld artificial aging with and without sub-zero treatment. Result revealed that the amount of softening in the welded region is indirectly proportional to electrode travel speed during welding process. It is also observed that the post weld SCT with artificial aging has increased the micro hardness values on the welded region as a consequence of the reactivation in the sequence of precipitation.

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Publication Type: Patent

Year of Publication Title

2017

Shanmugam Murugappan and Dr. Sanjivi Arul, “A Novel Welding Fixture”, U.S. Patent 4376/CHE/20152017.

Publication Type: Thesis

Year of Publication Title

2013

Dr. Sanjivi Arul, “Process development for surface alloying of bronze with NI/CR using GTA heat source-modelling and validation”, Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham ( Amrita University), Coimbatore, 2013.[Abstract]


Bronze is commonly used as a bearing material because of its superior wear resistance. In an effort to improve further its wear resistance, researchers have resorted to adding Ni/Cr. However, the wear property need not be improved for the entire bulk of the alloy, rather it is sufficient for many applications if it is enhanced to a certain depth from the surface. In this work, a surface alloying process using the gas tungsten arc as the heat source has been developed to make an in-situ alloy of Ni/Cr with bronze at the surface. A heat transfer model with an enhanced conductivity and mass transfer model with the eddy mass diffusivity were developed for the surface alloying process. The heat distribution parameters required for the heat transfer model were determined through a vision system based experimental method and the thermal efficiency of the heat source (arc) was determined by a combined experimental and simulation method. Parametric models of the heat distribution parameters and the thermal efficiency of the heat source relating with the process parameters were developed. The heat distribution parameters were dependent on the process parameters, while the thermal efficiency was found to be independent and around 74%. The heat transfer model was used to predict the modified layer and the mass transfer model was used to predict the concentration profile of the alloying element. The models were validated through experiments. The hardness of the Bronze surface increased from HV120 to HV185 in case of Ni and HV175 in case of Cr improving the wear property of the surface. The wear rate of Bronze decreased to one fourth of its value after surface alloying with Ni and the coefficient of friction remains 0.57. The gas tungsten arc heat source is able to modify and enhance the wear property of Bronze by alloying Ni/Cr at the surface and the simplified heat and mass transfer models were able to predict the concentration of the alloying element at the modified surface.

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Invited Talks

  • Special address during the one day workshop on “Choice Based Credit System” conducted by Mahendra Engineering College, Namakkal in association with Indian Society for Technical Education (ISTE), New Delhi on December 3, 2015. This workshop was attended by the HOD's and senior faculty members of various departments of the Mahendra Group of Institutions which includes Engineering and Arts and Science Colleges.
  • “Robotics and its Applications”, Sri Krishna College of Engineering and Technology, Coimbatore, National Level Seminar on Robotics – ROBOGENUS, March 20, 2014.
  • Talk on “Effect of Process Variables on GTAW Arc Parameters using Arc Images” for Scientists and Engineers of WRI, BHEL, WRI, Trichy, October 8, 2013.
  • Talk on “Robotics” for Teaching Faculty, Dept of EEE Government Engineering College” Thrissur, Kerala. STTP on “Tools and techniques for Modelling and Design of Systems”, March 3, 2008.
  • “Mobile Robotics”, Department of Mathematics, University of Milano, Italy, PhD Scholar Seminar hall, June 8, 2007.

Reviewer – Journals, Conferences and Books

  • Reviewer for Rare Metals.
  • Reviewer for “Journal of Process Mechanical Engineering”, Sage Publications.
  • Reviewer for the Journal “Materials and Design”, Elsevier Publications.
  • MIC2015 (15th Machining Innovations Conference for Aerospace Industry), November 18-19, 2015, at the Hanover Centre for Production Technology (PZH Garbsen, Germany).
  • Reviewer for the 2014 IEEE Symposium on Business, Engineering and Industrial Applications.
  • Reviewer of the book “Industrial Robotics – Technology, Programming and Applications” by Mikell P Groover, Mitchel Weiss, Roger N Nagel, Nicholas G Odrey, Ashish Dutta, 2013, McGraw-Hill India.
  • Reviewer of the book “Introduction to Robotics” by S.K.Saha, 2012, McGraw-Hill India.