Dr. Sadiya Khan currently serves as Associate Professor at the Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Kochi.


Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Title


S. Khan and Kumar, A., “Hepatitis B Vaccination for Healthcare Workers”, Indian Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 35, p. 315, 2017.


Dr. Anil Kumar V. and S. Khan, “Defining Multidrug Resistance in Gram-negative Bacilli”, Indian Journal of Medical Research, vol. 141, pp. 491-493, 2015.


R. Girish, V. Kumar, A., S. Khan, Dinesh, K. R., and Karim, S., “Revised ciprofloxacin breakpoints for Salmonella: Is it time to write an obituary?”, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 7, pp. 2467-2469, 2013.[Abstract]

Objectives: To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin among 50 blood stream isolates of Salmonella enterica. Material and Methods: A total of 50 consecutive isolates of Salmonella enterica were tested for susceptibility to antimicrobials using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using Hi-Comb strips. All results were interpreted according to the CLSI guidelines. Results: Of the 50 isolates 70%were Salmonella Typhi, 4% Salmonella paratyphi A, 2% Salmonella paratyphi B and the remaining 10% were identified only as Salmonella species. Using the CLSI 2011 breakpoints for disc diffusion, 86% (43/50) were resistant to nalidixic acid(NA), 22% (11/50) to ciprofloxacin, 12% to azithromycin, 6% to cotrimoxazole, 4% to ampicillin and 1% to chloramphenicol. The MIC50 and MIC90 of ciprofloxacin for S.Typhi were 0.181 μg/mL and 5.06 μg/mL respectively. While the same for S. paratyphi A was 0.212μg/mL and 0.228μg/mL respectively. None of the isolates were multi drug resistant and all were susceptible to ceftriaxone. Using the CLSI 2012 revised ciprofloxacin breakpoints for disc diffusion (>31mm) & MIC (<0.06 μg/mL), 90% (45/50) of these isolates were found to be resistant. Conclusion: MIC's of ciprofloxacin should be reported for all salmonella isolates and should be used to guide treatment. Blindly following western guidelines for a disease which is highly endemic in the subcontinent will spell the death knell of a cheap and effective drug in our armamentarium. Therefore it will be too premature to declare that "the concept of using ciprofloxacin in typhoid fever is dead!".

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S. Khan and V. Kumar, A., “Pitfalls of interpreting ciprofloxacin minimum inhibitory concentrations in salmonella enterica serovar typhi”, Indian Journal of Medical Research, vol. 136, p. 884, 2012.