Qualification: 
MD, MBBS
Email: 
shamsulkarim@aims.amrita.edu

Dr. Shamsul Karim P. M. currently serves as Professor at the Department of Microbiology, School of Medicine, Kochi.

Publications

Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2017

Journal Article

Dr. Anil Kumar V., Sachu, A., Mohan, K., Vinod, V., Dinesh, K. Radhakrish, and Karim, S., “Simple low cost differentiation of Candida auris from Candida haemulonii complex using CHROMagar Candida medium supplemented with Pal's medium”, Revista Iberoamericana de Micologia, 2017.[Abstract]


Background: Candida auris is unique due to its multidrug resistance and misidentification as Candida haemulonii by commercial systems. Its correct identification is important to avoid inappropriate treatments. Aims: To develop a cheap method for differentiating C. auris from isolates identified as C. haemulonii by VITEK2. Methods: Fifteen C. auris isolates, six isolates each of C. haemulonii and Candida duobushaemulonii, and one isolate of Candida haemulonii var. vulnera were tested using CHROMagar Candida medium supplemented with Pal's agar for better differentiation. Results: On CHROMagar Candida medium supplemented with Pal's agar all C. auris strains showed confluent growth of white to cream colored smooth colonies at 37. °C and 42. °C after 24 and 48. h incubation and did not produce pseudohyphae. The isolates of the C. haemulonii complex, on the contrary, showed poor growth of smooth, light-pink colonies at 24. h while at 48. h the growth was semiconfluent with the production of pseudohyphae. C. haemulonii complex failed to grow at 42. °C. Conclusions: We report a rapid and cheap method using CHROMagar Candida medium supplemented with Pal's agar for differentiating C. auris from isolates identified as C. haemulonii by VITEK2. © 2017 Asociación Española de Micología.

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2015

Journal Article

A. Gopinathan, Shemin, Z., Kumar, A., Augustine, D., Siyad, I., Jojo, A., Philip, R., Dinesh, K., and Karim, S., “Pancreatic botryomycosis caused by viridans streptococci: A case report”, Infectious Diseases in Clinical Practice, vol. 23, pp. e23-e25, 2015.[Abstract]


Botryomycosis is a chronic suppurative granulomatous disease of the skin viscera. It is known to mimic diseases such as actinomycosis and invasive carcinoma. Visceral botryomycosis is a rare entity compared with its cutaneous counterpart. It can be identified using staining techniques such as Gomori methenamine silver, periodic acid-Schiff Gram stain, histopathological examination, and aerobic culture of the lesion. Splendore-Hoeppli phenomenon is a characteristic feature of this disease. It responds to prolonged treatment with beta-lactams and surgery.There have been very few case reports on visceral botryomycosis across the world. We report a case of pancreatic botryomycosis caused by viridans streptococci in a patient with chronic calcific pancreatitis who was presumptively diagnosed as having carcinoma of the head of the pancreas. © 2015 Wolters Kluwer Health, Inc. All rights reserved.

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2015

Journal Article

A. Kumar, Udayakumaran, S., Babu, R., Rajamma, B. M., Prakash, A., Panikar, D., Karim, S., and Chowdhary, A., “Trichosporon asahii infection presenting as chronic meningo-ventriculitis and intra ventricular fungal ball: A case report and literature review”, Mycoses, vol. 58, pp. 99-103, 2015.[Abstract]


Summary: Central nervous system trichosporonosis is a rare clinical entity and so far only six cases including three each of brain abscess and meningitis has been on record. We report a rare case of chronic meningo-ventriculitis and intraventricular fungal ball due to Trichosporon asahii in an 18-year-old immunocompetent male from Burundi, east Africa. Neuroendoscopy showed multiple nodules and a fungal ball within the ventricle, which on culture grew T. asahii. He was initially empirically treated with liposomal amphotericin B. However, the antifungal susceptibility testing of T. asahii isolate revealed high minimum inhibitory concentration for amphotericin B (2 μg ml-1), flucytosine (16 μg ml-1) and caspofungin (2 μg ml-1) but exhibited potent activity for voriconazole, posaconazole, itraconazole and fluconazole. The patient rapidly succumbed to cardiac arrest before antifungal therapy could be changed. Although disseminated trichosporonosis has been increasingly reported the diagnosis represents a challenge especially in rare clinical settings such as intraventricular fungal ball in the present case, which has not been described previously. © 2015 Blackwell Verlag GmbH.

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2014

Journal Article

A. Kumar, Sreehari, S., Velayudhan, K., Biswas, L., Babu, R., Ahmed, S., Sharma, N., Kurupath, V. P., Jojo, A., Dinesh, K. R., Karim, S., and Biswas, R., “Case report: Autochthonous blastomycosis of the adrenal: First case report from Asia”, American Journal of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene, vol. 90, pp. 735-739, 2014.[Abstract]


Systemic endemic mycoses, such as blastomycosis, are rare in Asia and have been reported as health risks among travelers who visit or reside in an endemic area. Adrenal involvement is rarely seen in blastomycosis and has never been reported from Asia. We report the first case of blastomycosis with bilateral involvement of the adrenals in a diabetic patient residing in the state of Arunachal Pradesh, India. Copyright © 2014 by The American Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene. More »»

2013

Journal Article

R. Girish, V. Kumar, A., S. Khan, Dinesh, K. R., and Karim, S., “Revised ciprofloxacin breakpoints for Salmonella: Is it time to write an obituary?”, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 7, pp. 2467-2469, 2013.[Abstract]


Objectives: To determine the minimum inhibitory concentration of ciprofloxacin among 50 blood stream isolates of Salmonella enterica. Material and Methods: A total of 50 consecutive isolates of Salmonella enterica were tested for susceptibility to antimicrobials using the Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method. Minimum inhibitory concentrations were determined using Hi-Comb strips. All results were interpreted according to the CLSI guidelines. Results: Of the 50 isolates 70%were Salmonella Typhi, 4% Salmonella paratyphi A, 2% Salmonella paratyphi B and the remaining 10% were identified only as Salmonella species. Using the CLSI 2011 breakpoints for disc diffusion, 86% (43/50) were resistant to nalidixic acid(NA), 22% (11/50) to ciprofloxacin, 12% to azithromycin, 6% to cotrimoxazole, 4% to ampicillin and 1% to chloramphenicol. The MIC50 and MIC90 of ciprofloxacin for S.Typhi were 0.181 μg/mL and 5.06 μg/mL respectively. While the same for S. paratyphi A was 0.212μg/mL and 0.228μg/mL respectively. None of the isolates were multi drug resistant and all were susceptible to ceftriaxone. Using the CLSI 2012 revised ciprofloxacin breakpoints for disc diffusion (>31mm) & MIC (<0.06 μg/mL), 90% (45/50) of these isolates were found to be resistant. Conclusion: MIC's of ciprofloxacin should be reported for all salmonella isolates and should be used to guide treatment. Blindly following western guidelines for a disease which is highly endemic in the subcontinent will spell the death knell of a cheap and effective drug in our armamentarium. Therefore it will be too premature to declare that "the concept of using ciprofloxacin in typhoid fever is dead!".

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2011

Journal Article

A. V. Kumar, Pillai, V. S., Dinesh, K., and Karim, S., “The phenotypic detection of carbapenemase in meropenem resistant acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex in a tertiary care hospital in South India”, Journal of Clinical and Diagnostic Research, vol. 5, pp. 223-226, 2011.[Abstract]


Background and objectives: The predominant Acinetobacter spp. in clinical settings are the members of the Acinetobacter calcoaceticus- baumannii complex which are multi drug resistant and are responsible for causing outbreaks. Carbapenem resistance due to metallo-β-lactamase production in Acinetobacter spp. is on the rise. We investigated the production of carbapenemase among the meropenem resistant Acinetobacter spp. which were further screened for metallo-β-lacatmase production. The co-resistance to other classes of antibiotics was also investigated. materials and methods: Forty five non duplicate consecutive meropenem resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus- baumannii complex were investigated for carbapenemase production by the modified Hodge test. The carbapenemase producing isolates were further screened for metallo-β-lacatmase production by the combined disc diffusion test by using imipenem with EDTA as the chelator. The co-resistance to other classes of antibiotics was also investigated to identify the multi drug resistant isolates. results: Of the 45 non duplicate consecutive meropenem resistant Acinetobacter calcoaceticus- baumannii complex which were screened, 95% (43/45) of them were multi drug resistant and 71% (32/45) were found to be carbapenemase producers by the modified Hodge test, of which 21% (7/32) were found to be metallo-β-lacatmase producers phenotypically by the combined-disk test. Conclusion: Carbapenem resistance in Acinetobacter calcoaceticus-baumannii complex is very high and is predominantly due to carbapenemase production. However, metallo-β-lactamase production among these isolates is not very high but is gradually increasing. Only 21% of our isolates were metallo-β-lactamase phenotypes, thus suggesting that the production of carbapenem hydrolyzing oxacillinase is still the most common mechanism of resistance to carbapenems in this species. More »»
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