Qualification: 
MS
v_smrithirekha@cb.amrita.edu

Smrithi Rekha is a PhD scholar at ASB working in the area of Group Decision Making in Software Architecture. Her research is in collaboration with Prof. Henry Muccini, University of L'Aquila, Italy. She has a Master of Science in Management Information System and IT Enabled Services from Amrita Vishwa Vidyapeetham and University at Buffalo, USA. 

She is a researcher at the Center for Research in Advanced Technologies for Education (Amrita CREATE). Her areas of research at CREATE include Cognitive Science, Online Labs and Tablet Based Education.

Publications

Publication Type: Book Chapter

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2016

Book Chapter

V. Adinarayanan, V Smrithi Rekha, and Sooryanarayan, D. G., “A Multidimensional View of Leadership from an Indian Perspective”, in Ethical Leadership: Indian and European Spiritual Approaches, M. Chatterji and Zsolnai, L. London: Palgrave Macmillan UK, 2016, pp. 71–84.[Abstract]


There now exists a significant global movement that supports sustainable practices, green thinking, environmental consciousness, a wider sense of social responsibility and a more inclusive economics. We are also starting to witness a change in the fundamental objectives of business, away from a pure focus on profit to a more inclusive outlook. Such a transition calls for a change in the thought processes of leadership. India, with its rich and well-established spiritual traditions, can provide a roadmap for the realization of this transition. A multidimensional view of leadership can be developed by adopting the Purusharthas, that are four goals of human life according to the Indian tradition, as the foundation of ethical leadership, and by absorbing guidance from the Indian texts like the Mahabharata and the Bhagavad Gita. They demonstrate the relevance of Indian principles to modern-day leadership, and explain how leadership can incorporate ethics by paying homage to Indian scripture.

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2015

Book Chapter

J. Anusha, V Smrithi Rekha, and Dr. Bhagavathi Sivakumar P., “Artificial Intelligence and Evolutionary Algorithms in Engineering Systems”, in A Machine Learning Approach to Cluster the users of Stack Overflow Forum, vol. 325, P. L. Suresh, Dash, S. Subhransu, and Panigrahi, K. Bijaya New Delhi: Springer India, 2015, pp. 411–418.[Abstract]


Online question and answer (Q&A) forums are emerging as excellent learning platforms for learners with varied interests. In this paper, we present our results on the clustering of Stack Overflow users into four clusters, namely naive users, surpassing users, experts, and outshiners. This clustering is based on various metrics available on the forum. We use the X-means and expectation maximization clustering algorithms and compare the results. The results have been validated using internal, external, and relative validation techniques. The objective of this clustering is to be able to trace and predict the activity of a user on this forum. According to our results, majority of users (71 % of 40,000 users under consideration) fall in the ‘experts’ category. This indicates that the users in Stack Overflow are of high quality thereby making the forum an excellent platform for users to learn about computer programming.

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2015

Book Chapter

J. Anusha, V Smrithi Rekha, and P. Sivakumar, B., “A Machine Learning Approach to Cluster the Users of Stack Overflow Forum”, in Artificial Intelligence and Evolutionary Algorithms in Engineering Systems: Proceedings of ICAEES 2014, Volume 2, P. L Suresh, Dash, S. Sekhar, and Panigrahi, B. Ketan New Delhi: Springer India, 2015, pp. 411–418.[Abstract]


Online question and answer (Q&A) forums are emerging as excellent learning platforms for learners with varied interests. In this paper, we present our results on the clustering of Stack Overflow users into four clusters, namely naive users, surpassing users, experts, and outshiners. This clustering is based on various metrics available on the forum. We use the X-means and expectation maximization clustering algorithms and compare the results. The results have been validated using internal, external, and relative validation techniques. The objective of this clustering is to be able to trace and predict the activity of a user on this forum. According to our results, majority of users (71 % of 40,000 users under consideration) fall in the ‘experts’ category. This indicates that the users in Stack Overflow are of high quality thereby making the forum an excellent platform for users to learn about computer programming.

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Publication Type: Conference Paper

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2016

Conference Paper

V. P Rajeev and V Smrithi Rekha, “Opinion Mining of User Reviews Using Machine Learning Techniques and Ranking of Products Based on Features(2016)”, in Proceedings of the International Conference on Soft Computing Systems, 2016, pp. 627–637.[Abstract]


Online shopping websites and the people using the Online shopping websites are proliferating every day. The widely available internet resources are letting the users to shop any products anywhere, anytime at any cost. With the brisk development in the 3G and 4G we can expect a tremendous development in the area of M-commerce and E-commerce. In this paper, we have presented our work which is an extension to our earlier work which is the comparison of two mobile products based on predefined score and features of the Mobile. Therefore, we have shown in this paper the ranking of products, ranking of products based on features, comparison of websites Flipkart and Amazon, comparison of algorithms Naive Bayes classifier, decision tree classifier and Maximum Entropy classifier based on accuracy which is used in the classification of reviews. Finally, we have shown these rankings in a graphical user interface (GUI) to recommend the user the best product. More »»

2015

Conference Paper

D. Tamburri, V Smrithi Rekha, and Muccini, H., “On the Social Dimensions of Architectural Decisions”, in European Conference on Software Architecture ECSA 2015, 2015, vol. 9278, pp. 137-145.

2015

Conference Paper

P. V. Rajeev and V Smrithi Rekha, “Recommending products to customers using opinion mining of online product reviews and features”, in Circuit, Power and Computing Technologies (ICCPCT), 2015 International Conference on, 2015.[Abstract]


E-Commerce sites are gaining popularity across the world. People visit them not just to shop products but also to know the opinion of other buyers and users of products. Online customer reviews are helping consumers to decide which products to buy and also companies to understand the buying behavior of consumers. In this paper we have created a prototype Web based system for recommending and comparing products sold online. We have used natural language processing to automatically read reviews and used Naive Bayes classification to determine the polarity of reviews. We have also extracted the reviews of product features and the polarity of those features. We graphically present to the customer, the better of two products based on various criteria including the star ratings, date of review, the helpfulness score of the review and the polarity of reviews.

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2015

Conference Paper

V. M, V Smrithi Rekha, and K, S., “Game Based Learning Platform for Indian K-12 Mathematics”, in International Conference on Advances in Applied Engineering and Technology - 2015 (ICAAET'15), 2015.

2014

Conference Paper

V Smrithi Rekha and Muccini, Hb, “A study on group decision-making in software architecture”, in Proceedings - Working IEEE/IFIP Conference on Software Architecture 2014, WICSA 2014, Sydney, NSW, 2014, pp. 185-194.[Abstract]


When architecting software systems, architects (with the contribution of other stakeholders) make several design decisions. These decisions could be related to the selection of the right components and connectors, the architectural style to be used, the distribution of various components, the deployment of software components into hardware devices, etc. Many methods have been proposed by the research community to help documenting several aspects of architectural design decisions including design alternatives, stakeholder concerns, decisions and the rationale for making such decisions and enhancing the decision-making process. Still, very little has been done to truly understand how architectural design decisions are made by group of practitioners, what information is documented, the tools used for helping documenting and how conflicts are managed. This study, by looking at principles and techniques for group decision making coming from other disciplines, aims to understand: a) how practitioners make group decisions in architecting software systems, b) how practiced group decision-making techniques relate to state-of-the-art techniques, and c) challenges companies face when making architecture-related group decisions. The study is conducted by using a questionnaire distributed to practitioners and researchers involved in group design decisions in industry. The results are used to drive some recommendations to improve the current group design decision process. © 2014 IEEE.

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2014

Conference Paper

V Smrithi Rekha, Divya, N., and Dr. Bhagavathi Sivakumar P., “A Hybrid Auto-tagging System for StackOverflow Forum Questions”, in In Proceedings of the International Conference on Interdisciplinary Advances in Applied Computing (ICONIAAC '14), New York, NY, USA, 2014.

2014

Conference Paper

Raghu Raman, Kv, Ub, V Smrithi Rekha, and Prof. Nedungadi, P., “Using WebGL to implement a glass lens in Online Labs”, in 2014 7th International Conference on Contemporary Computing, IC3 2014, 2014, pp. 50-55.[Abstract]


Online Labs are revolutionizing education by offering access to content anytime and from any place. The OLabs project has had a deep impact on learning capabilities of students by providing an integrated environment that includes videos, animations, simulations and textual content. It has also helped to substitute teachers wherever there have been gaps. OLabs offers an excellent platform for the improvement of Science, Technology, Engineering and Maths (STEM) education which has been the focus of several countries in recent times. The current content in OLabs is 2 dimensional. 2D content comes with its own limitations of low accuracy and low realism and hence moving to browser based 3D representations is important to offer an enriching experience to the learner. WebGL offers the powerful capability of rendering 2D as well as 3D content in any browser without the need to install additional applications or components. With the advent of WebGL, writing 3D applications have become simpler since most details are abstracted from the programmer. New features are added almost every week in WebGL by the community making it rich and powerful. In this paper we present our work on implementing, in 3D, a convex lens experiment in OLabs Physics using WebGL and dynamic cube mapping. We propose to extend this work to more experiments in Physics and Chemistry, demonstrate it to students and measure their learning. © 2014 IEEE.

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PDF iconusing-webgl-to-implement-a-glass-lens-in-online-labs.pdf

2014

Conference Paper

D. Ga Sooryanarayan, Gupta, D., and V Smrithi Rekha, “Trends in open source software adoption in Indian educational institutions”, in Proceedings - IEEE 6th International Conference on Technology for Education, T4E 2014, 2014, pp. 249-252.[Abstract]


he Indian educational system caters to a diverse population. This diversity adds to the complexity and hence requires the support of technology to reach out to the masses. The Government has launched a lot of initiatives for the adoption of technology in education. Despite these efforts, there has been a gap in the actual adoption. In this paper we present the results of our study of current trends in the use of technology in academic institutions. We specially focus on openness to Open Source Software usage and try to understand the factors that influence educational institutions against open source software adoption. More »»

2014

Conference Paper

V Smrithi Rekha and Adinarayanan, V., “A free and open source framework for rural education”, in Contemporary Computing (IC3), 2014 Seventh International Conference on, 2014.[Abstract]


With more than 85% of India's schools being in rural areas, it is imminent that we focus on enhancing the quality of rural education. Given these large number of students in rural schools, we need scalable models to cater to their needs. Information and Communication Technology can go a long way in making resources available and accessible in a scalable manner. However, this comes with a huge cost. In this paper, we propose the FORE framework which is the Free and Open Source Software Based framework for rural education which helps cut cost in a drastic manner thereby making implementation not just cheaper but of very high quality. This framework integrates several components of rural education and it directly addresses the needs of schools in rural areas. More »»

2014

Conference Paper

V Smrithi Rekha and Adinarayanan, V., “An Open Source approach to enhance industry preparedness of students”, in Advances in Computing, Communications and Informatics (ICACCI, 2014 International Conference on, 2014.[Abstract]


Transitioning from college to industry can be challenging task if students are not exposed to the right content while in college. In this paper we present an Open Source based approach to Software Engineering where students get the opportunity to work on live Open Source projects thereby gaining practical exposure to various Software Engineering principles. The objective of this approach is to enhance the Industry Preparedness of students and addressing the challenges they may face as professionals. This approach is based on the result of our study of Software Engineers who have newly joined the industry. The study involved understanding the Software Engineering (SE) course content they were exposed to as students, whether the SE related course(s) were able to meet the outcomes laid by Software Engineering Education Knowledge, whether the course adequately prepared them to take on various industry responsibilities and the challenges they faced in the transition. More »»

2012

Conference Paper

M. Saravanan, Prasad, G., Jagadeesan, M., Raghu Raman, and V Smrithi Rekha, “Group Recommender Model for Boosting and Optimizing Customer Purchases”, in Advances in Social Networks Analysis and Mining (ASONAM), 2012 IEEE/ACM International Conference on, 2012.[Abstract]


Group recommender systems generate a set of recommendations that will satisfy a group of customers with potentially competing purchase interests. This paper proposes a research and operational model which effectively enhances Group Recommender Model to boost the customer purchases. For this purpose, it uses the communication and collaboration of two major sources namely Mobile Money Operator and Outlet. MMO proactively monitors the spending pattern of the customers who make purchases using their mobile money. Outlet performs customer segmentation based on RFM (Recency, Frequency and Monetary) score after which a Recursive Cluster Elimination is performed that eliminates customers within the targeted segment. Recursive Frequent Item set Mining and Recursive Market Basket Analysis are performed for the rest of customers in the targeted segment. From the obtained results, the product preferences of the remaining customers in the segment are identified based on which offers are formulated and recommended for the entire segment. It is then communicated to the MMO that intimates these offers to the potential customers among the segment. This model results in boosting customer purchases, expanding customer base and effects in the profitability of the combined source. More »»
PDF icongroup-recommender-model-for-boosting-and-optimizing-customer-purchases.pdf

2012

Conference Paper

A. V and V Smrithi Rekha, “Experiences with Constructivist Approach to Learning Software Development using Free and Open Source Software”, in International Conference on Technology Enhanced Education, 2012.

2010

Conference Paper

V Smrithi Rekha, Dr. Vidhya Balasubramanian, and Adinarayanan, Vb, “Social computing in universities: An evaluation of practicality”, in Proceedings of the 1st Amrita ACM-W Celebration of Women in Computing in India, A2CWiC'10, Coimbatore, 2010.[Abstract]


Social Computing has evolved with the purpose of triggering the collective consciousness of human beings thereby leading them to common goals. This bringing together of people has opened up a cornucopia of possibilities in education. However the large scale implementation of social computing in a university setting is still not widespread as one would expect. This paper tries to understand the reasons for this lack of widespread use by getting actual user perspectives in an Indian university. An initial recommendation for practical implementation has also been discussed. More »»

2009

Conference Paper

V Smrithi Rekha, Adinarayanan, V., Maherchandani, A., and Aswani, S., “Bridging the Computer Science skill gap with Free and Open Source Software”, in Engineering Education (ICEED), 2009 International Conference on, 2009.[Abstract]


The expectations of industry from Computer Science (CS) graduates is increasing as technology is advancing rapidly. Despite the several measures taken by academia to gear up their curriculum to match the expectations, the software industry still sees a lot of gap in the skill level. In this paper we have explored the possibility of using Free and Open Source Software (FOSS) and FOSS activities to bridge this skill gap.

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Publication Type: Journal Article

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2015

Journal Article

Raghu Raman, Prof. Nedungadi, P., V Smrithi Rekha, and Krishnasree Achuthan, “Computer Science (CS) Education in Indian Schools: Situation Analysis using Darmstadt Model”, ACM Transactions on Computing Education (IN PRESS), 2015.[Abstract]


Computer science (CS) and its enabling technologies are at the heart of this information age, yet its adoption as a core subject by senior secondary students in Indian schools is low and has not reached critical mass. Though there have been efforts to create core curriculum standards for subjects like Physics, Chemistry, Biology, and Math, CS seems to have been kept outside the purview of such efforts leading to its marginalization. As a first step, using the Darmstadt model from the ITiCSE working group that provides a systematic categorization approach to CS education in schools, we coded and analyzed the CS situation for the Indian schools. Next, we focused on the motivation category of the Darmstadt model and investigated behavioral intentions of secondary school students and teachers from 332 schools in India. Considering the CS subject as an educational innovation, using Rogers’ Theory of Diffusion of Innovations, we propose a pedagogical framework for innovation attributes that can significantly predict-adoption of the CS subject among potential-adopter students and teachers. Data was analyzed to answer research questions about student and teacher intentions, influence of gender, school management, and school location in adopting CS. Interestingly, girls, urban students, teachers, and private schools were seen favoring the adoption of CS. An important issue that needed to be addressed, however, was the interchangeable use of terms like CS, Informatics, ICT, and digital literacy. Through our article, we offer a promising picture of the educational policy directives and the academic environment in India that is rapidly growing and embracing CS as a core subject of study in schools. We also analyze the factors that influence the adoption of CS by school students and teachers and conclude that there is a very positive response for CS among educators and students in India.

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PDF iconcomputer-science-cs-education-in-indian-schools-situation-analysis-using-darmstadt-model.pdf

2014

Journal Article

V Smrithi Rekha and Muccini, Hc, “Suitability of software architecture decision making methods for group decisions”, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), vol. 8627 LNCS, pp. 17-32, 2014.[Abstract]


Software architecture design decisions are central to the architecting process. Hence, the software architecture community has been constantly striving towards making the decision-making process robust and reliable to create high-quality architectures. Surveys of practitioners has demonstrated that most decisions made by them are group decisions. Hence, for any tool or method to be useful to them, it must include provision for making group decisions. In this paper we analyse if and how current software architecture decision-making techniques support Group Decision Making (GDM). We use an evaluation framework with eight criteria, identified by the GDM community, to evaluate selected SA decision-making techniques in order to check their adequacy and suitability to support group decisions. As per our analysis, most of the selected methods in their current form are not yet fully suitable for group decision making and may need to integrate more aspects like provision for stakeholders to explicitly indicate their preferences, conflict resolution mechanisms, and group decision rules meant to specify how stakeholders' preferences are taken into account. © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.

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2014

Journal Article

Ia Malavolta, Muccini, Hb, and V Smrithi Rekha, “Enhancing architecture design decisions evolution with group decision making principles”, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), vol. 8785, pp. 9-23, 2014.[Abstract]


In this work, we propose to explicitly include group decision making strategies into an architecting phase, so to clearly document not only the architectural decisions that may lead to the success or failure of a system, but also group decision making factors driving the way architecture design decisions are made. In this regard, this work defines a group design decision metamodel (for representing group design decisions and their relationships), together with ways to trace group design decisions towards other system life-cycle artifacts, and a change impact analysis engine for supporting evolving design decisions. In order to build resilient systems, robust architectures are needed. The software architecture community clearly recognizes that robust architectures come from a robust decision-making process. The community also acknowledges that software architecture decision making is not an individual activity but a group process where architectural design decisions are made by groups of heterogeneous and dispersed stakeholders. The decision-making process is not just data driven, but also people driven, and group decision making methodologies have been studied from multiple perspectives (e.g., psychology, organizational behavior, economics) with the clear understanding that a poor-quality decision making process is more likely than a high-quality process leading to undesirable outcomes (including disastrous fiascoes). © Springer International Publishing Switzerland 2014.

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2012

Journal Article

V. Adinarayanan and V Smrithi Rekha, “Approaching decision-making from a dharmic perspective”, Purusharta, vol. 5, pp. 125-135, 2012.[Abstract]


The world is witnessing unprecedented crises on many fronts of human endeavor like economic, political, environmental, social and personal. These crises are, in one sense, an effect of decisions made individually or collectively either in the recent past or bygone eras. These decisions arise from the decision-making models followed, which in turn are rooted in the perspective offered by the culture of the land. Now researchers and thought leaders are revisiting the decision models with the aim of making them more holistic, i.e. as multidimensional as possible. We see how decision-making models have evolved from simplistic uni-objective models to multi-objective and multivariate models that include uncertainty as an underlying assumption. Given this context, in our work we approach decision-making from a dharmic perspective. By dharmic we mean the Hindu, Buddhist, Jain and Sikh traditions. We explore how the perspective adopted impacts decision making and the consequences of the decisions made. We have followed a multi-pronged approach. Initially, we critique the western models of decision making. In doing this we observe that the dharmic way of decision-making presupposes the features of multidimensionality and uncertainty. In other words, these features are endogenous to the dharmic way of decision-making whereas they are exogenous in the western way. In addition to this, the dharmic way recognizes how the qualities of the decision-maker impact the decisions and hence lays emphasis on the refinement of these qualities. For instance, the idea of citta-shuddhi (purification of consciousness) is considered important. Based on the critique and comparison we propose a model of decision-making inspired by dharmic perspective, specifically, from Indian philosophy and psychology. We base this model on aspects like embodied knowing, collectivity, reflection and contemplation and application of tarka (debate) and vada (discussion). The intended benefit of our work is to understand the gaps in the current decision-making processes that lead to crises. We achieve this by changing the perspective from western to dharmic. This leads to the refinement of the instruments of decision-making that will impact collective well-being.

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2011

Journal Article

Ia Malavolta, Muccini, Ha, and V Smrithi Rekha, “Supporting architectural design decisions evolution through model driven engineering”, Lecture Notes in Computer Science (including subseries Lecture Notes in Artificial Intelligence and Lecture Notes in Bioinformatics), vol. 6968 LNCS, pp. 63-77, 2011.[Abstract]


Architectural design decisions (i.e., those decisions made when architecting software systems) are considered an essential piece of knowledge to be carefully documented and maintained. As any other artifact, architectural design decisions may evolve, having an impact on other design decisions, or on related artifacts (like requirements and architectural elements). It is therefore important to document and analyze the impact of an evolving decision on other related decisions or artifacts. In this work we propose an approach based on a notation-independent metamodel that becomes a means for systematically defining traceability links, enabling inter-decision and extra-decision evolution impact analysis. The purpose of such an analysis is to check the presence of inconsistencies that may occur during evolution. An Eclipse plugin has been realized to implement the approach. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.

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Publication Type: Journal

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2014

Journal

V Smrithi Rekha and Venkatapathy, S., “Understanding the Usage of Online Forums as Learning Platforms”. 2014.[Abstract]


Online forums provide an excellent platform for learning and connecting participants across the globe. However, only a few of them are suitable for learning. In this paper, we study the usage of StackOverflow (SO) forum through a survey and have presented our findings. The main objective of the study is to understand how satisfied users are with various aspects of the StackOverflow forum and how effective it is as a learning platform. The results reveal that StackOverflow may not support the learning needs of new learners. The specificity also discourages many users from frequently interacting on the forum. More »»

Publication Type: Conference Proceedings

Year of Publication Publication Type Title

2014

Conference Proceedings

B. P Sivakumar, V Smrithi Rekha, and J, A., “A Machine Learning Approach to Cluster the users of Stack Overflow Forum”, Intl Conference on Artificial Intelligence and Evolutionary Algorithms in Engineering Systems, vol. 325. Springer , India, 2014.[Abstract]


Online question and answer (Q&A) forums are emerging as excellent learning platforms for learners with varied interests. In this paper, we present our results on the clustering of Stack Overflow users into four clusters, namely naive users, surpassing users, experts, and outshiners. This clustering is based on various metrics available on the forum. We use the X-means and expectation maximization clustering algorithms and compare the results. The results have been validated using internal, external, and relative validation techniques. The objective of this clustering is to be able to trace and predict the activity of a user on this forum. According to our results, majority of users (71 % of 40,000 users under consideration) fall in the ‘experts’ category. This indicates that the users in Stack Overflow are of high quality thereby making the forum an excellent platform for users to learn about computer programming. More »»

2011

Conference Proceedings

V Smrithi Rekha, “Managing Evolving Architectural Design Decisions”, Grace Hopper Celebration of Women in Computing India. 2011.

207
PROGRAMS
OFFERED
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AMRITA
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15
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