Syllabus for Postgraduate Entrance Examination 2016
SCHEME OF EXAMINATION
Structure and function of Biomolecules: Carbohydrates, Lipids, proteins and nucleic acids.
Enzymes and intermediary metabolism: Classes of enzymes and various kinetic parameters, carbohydrate, lipid, protein and nucleic acid metabolisms, respiration and photosynthesis.
Anatomy and Physiology: Plant and animal Hormones and vitamins, transport mechanisms, meristems, primary& secondary tissues , primary structure of plant body, secondary growth, mineral nutrition, absorption, water & solute transport, transpiration, photosynthesis, respiration, plant movements, growth& senescence, plant tissue culture, digestive, cardiovascular, nervous, respiratory systems, reproductive systems.
Cells and organelles: Various types of cells both animal and plant cells, cell organelles, cytoskeletons, cell surface and junctions, cell communication within, between and among cell types.
Genetics: Mendel and the idea of a gene, chromosomal and molecular basis of inheritance, genetic basis of development, population genetics.
Molecular Biology: DNA as genetic material, mechanisms and regulation of prokaryotic and eukaryotic DNA replication, transcription, translation.
Microbes: Various types of animal and plant viruses, bacteria, fungi, algae and its economic importance, microbial growth and nutrition.
Defense system: Non specific and specific defense mechanism against various pathogens adopted by both plants and animals.
Ecology, evolution and biodiversity: Introduction to ecology and the biosphere, behavioural, population and community ecology, various ecosystems and conservation biology, prokaryotic and eukaryotic biodiversity, mechanisms of evolution.
Some Basic Concepts of Chemistry: Atoms, molecules, Elements, compounds, mixtures, basic physical quantities & units, atomic number & mass numbers Atomic and molecular masses. Mole concept, Molar mass; percentage composition, empirical and molecular formula (problems), chemical reactions, stoichiometry and calculations based on stoichiometry, nature of electro magnetic radiations, electromagnetic spectrum.
Atomic Structure: Sub atomic particles, Atom models (Thomson’s model, Rutherford’s model, Bohr’s model & quantum model) with merits & demerits, hydrogen spectrum, Zeeman effect, Compton effect & Stark effect, orbits & orbital shapes of s, p, & d orbital, rules for filling electrons in orbital, isoelectronic species, Aufbau principle, Pauli exclusion principle and Hund’s rule of maximum multiplicity. Dual nature of matter and light, de Broglie’s relationship, Heisenberg’s uncertainty principle. Quantum numbers, extra stability of half filled and completely filled orbital with examples.
Classification of Elements: Historical backgrounds, Developments in periodic table, periodic law and Long form of periodic table s, p, d & f block elements.
Periodicity in Properties: Periodicity in the properties of elements like –atomic radii, ionic radii, covalent radii, vander walls radii, ionization enthalpy & metallic character, electron gain enthalpy, electro negativity, diagonal relationship.
Chemical Bonding and Molecular Structure: Ionic bond, covalent bond, metallic bonds, co-ordinate bonds, hydrogen bonds, bonding in biomolecules with examples, bond parameters, polar character of covalent bond, covalent character of ionic bond, dipole moment, Fajans rules. Valence bond theory, resonance, geometry of covalent molecules, VSEPR theory, concept of hybridization involving s, p and d orbital and shapes of some simple molecules. Molecular orbital theory of homonuclear diatomic molecules, inter molecular forces, hydrophilic effect & hydrophobic effect.
Gaseous State: Gas Laws (Boyle’s law, Charle’s law, Gay Lussac’s law, Avogadro’s law) Kinetic theory of gases, Ideal behavior, empirical derivation of gas equation, Ideal gas equation, Deviation from ideal behavior, critical temperature. Ideal gases & real gases, calculation of molecular velocities, Specific heats & molar heats of gases.
Properties of liquids: General properties of liquids, Boiling point, freezing point, Vapour pressure, viscosity and surface tension, dielectric constant, refractive index, optical activity.
Solid State Characteristics of solids, molecular, ionic, covalent and metallic solids, amorphous and crystalline solids, unit cell in two dimensional and three dimensional lattices, voids, calculation of density of unit cell, packing in solids, voids, number of atoms per unit cell in a cubic unit cell, imperfections or defects in solids, liquid crystals & its applications, electrical and magnetic properties of solids, polymorphism
Bioenergetics: Introduction to chemical thermodynamics, systems & surrounding, types of systems, work, heat, energy, extensive and intensive properties, state functions & path functions, thermodynamic processes, First law of thermodynamics – internal energy and enthalpy, heat capacity and specific heat, measurement of ΔU and ΔH, Hess’s law of constant heat summation, enthalpy of combustion, sublimation, phase transition Introduction of entropy as a state function, free energy change for spontaneous and non-spontaneous process, Coupled reactions, ATP & energy rich compounds.
Equilibrium: Types of equilibrium, dynamic nature of equilibrium, law of mass action, equilibrium constant, factors affecting equilibrium Le Chatelier’s principle; ionic equilibrium –ionization of acids and bases, strong and weak electrolytes, degree of ionization, pH.& its measurement, buffer solutions buffer action, biological buffers, Henderson equation for buffers, biological buffers Ionic product, solubility product & its applications, common ion effect, precipitation & condition for precipitation, hydrolytic reactions, types of hydrolysis.
Organic Chemistry: Importance of organic chemistry in biology, classification & nomenclature of organic compounds, isomerism in organic molecules with examples, tautomerism (keto-enol, lactam-lactim) functional group-properties & their reactions. Organic reaction mechanism with necessary examples for each mechanism, Reaction intermediates, electron displacement effects & its applications, proximity effects, aromatic compounds, theory of aromaticity, heterocyclic compounds, Poly nuclear hydrocarbons. Configuration, different projection formula, epimers, Muta rotation, anomers, optical isomers & geometrical isomerism, asymmetric synthesis, measurement of angle of rotation, racemic mixture, racemization, resolution, Walden inversion, retention, stereo specific & stereo selective reactions
Solutions: Types of solutions, Solvation energy, lattice energy, solubility & factors affecting solubility, molarity, normality, molality, ppm, mass %, vol %, mole fraction, formality, solubility of gases in liquids, solid solutions, dilution factor, types of dilution, molecular interactions in solution, Thermodynamics of solutions, Colligative properties of dilute solutions & application to determine molecular mass, van’t Hoff factor, Diffusion, electrophoresis & types of electrophoresis.
Electrochemistry: Oxidation numbers, Redox reactions, redox potential, specific and molar conductivity variations of conductivity with concentration, Kohlrausch’s Law, electrolysis and laws of electrolysis, electrolytic cells and Galvanic cells, EMF of a cell, standard electrode potential, Nernst equation and its applications, redox reactions in cells, ionic mobility
Chemical Kinetics: Scope of chemical kinetics, reaction stoichiometry, Types of reactions, rate, order & molecularity of reactions, factors affecting the rate of reaction, energy barrier, activation energy, threshold energy, transition state, reaction intermediates. Catalysis, inhibitors, poisons, Mechanism of catalysis, optimum pH & optimum temperature. Enzyme catalysis with examples, enzyme kinetics Photochemical &thermo chemical reactions, effects on environmental pollution
Coordination Compounds: Coordination compounds in living systems, classification of ligands, coordination number, denticity of ligands, bonding & geometry of complexes, optic & magnetic properties,, IUPAC nomenclature, host – guest complexation chemistry, co-ordination polymerization, charge transfer complexes, metal toxicity, EDTA & analytical applications,
Chemistry of Biomolecules: Carbohydrates –aldoses and ketoses, Classification of sugars & non sugars, Pyrannose&furannose structure in carbohydrates, glycosidic bond, hemiacetal&hemiketal linkages, chemical tests for reducing sugars Proteins –Classification of amino acids & proteins, peptide bond, polypeptides, proteins, primary structure, secondary structure, tertiary structure and quaternary structure, bonding in proteins, denaturation of Proteins, Zwitter ions, isoelectric point, sating out & salting in of proteins, Chemical tests for proteins Nucleic Acids: Purines &pyramidines, nucleosides & nucleotides structural aspects of DNA& RNA, Bonding in Nucleic acids. Biopolymers
Radio chemistry: Types of radiations, radio activity, kinetics of radio active decay & problems, half life period, nuclear reaction, biological & medical applications of radioactive isotopes, carbon dating, biological damage caused by radiations, auto radiography, isotopic effect, isotopic labeling, tracer techniques, neutron activation analysis.
chromatography, Solvent extraction (elementary ideas with examples)
Spectroscopy: IR, UV-Visible, NMR & Mass (principle & applications)
Colorimetry : Principle & applications
Polarimetry: Principle & applications
Units and Measurements: Physical Units of measurement, various systems of units, SI System, Dimensions of physical quantities, Errors.
Mechanics: Frame of reference. Mass, velocity, acceleration, force, Newton’s laws of motion. Conservation laws – its applications, Concurrent forces- friction. Uniform circular motion. Work, energy- types, power. Rotational motion, Center of mass of a two particle system, Momentum Conservation, Center of mass motion, rigid bodies – moment of force, torque, angular momentum, center of mass, moment of inertia, radius of gyration.
Properties of Matter: Solids: Elasticity, Stress-strain relationship. Liquids: Pressure due to a fluid column, Pascal’s law and its applications. Viscosity, Stokes’ law, laminar and turbulent flow, Reynolds number, Bernoulli’s theorem, Poiseuille’s equation and its applications, Surface energy and surface tension and applications. Gases: Laws describing the states of gas and mixtures of gases. Ideal gas equation by Clapeyron and Mendeleyev, laws of Dalton and Henry for partial pressure in gas mixtures, Perfect gas-work done on compressing a gas, Kinetic theory of gases, Law of equipartition of energy, Degrees of freedom, Avogadro’s number.
Thermodynamics and Thermometry: Main types of thermodynamic systems, thermodynamic variables, Laws of Thermodynamics, Heat, work and internal energy, Reversible and irreversible processes, Heat engines and refrigerators. Thermometry-principles, concept of temperature and its measurements-Kelvin, Celsius and Fahrenheit, Platinum resistant thermometer, thermocouple and thermistor as thermometers.
Oscillations and Waves: Periodic motion – Simple harmonic motion, energy in S.H.M. – kinetic and potential energies; simple pendulum, types of oscillations–simple harmonic, damped harmonic and forced, resonance. Wave motion: types of waves, displacement relation for a progressive wave, Principle of superposition of waves, reflection, interference of waves, standing waves, fundamental mode and harmonics, Sound: vibrating systems, Beats, Doppler Effect, Audible, Ultrasonic and Infrasonic waves.
Electricity and magnetism: Electric Charges, the laws of their interaction-Coulomb’s law, Electric field, characteristic quantities for it. Dipoles, Electric potential, potential difference, equipotential surfaces, electrical potential energy, Conductors, insulators, Dielectrics and electric polarization- their behaviour in the Electric current-its characteristics-drift velocity, mobility, Ohm’s law, Resistance of a conductor, Series and parallel combinations, Internal resistance of a cell, potential difference and emf of a cell, Kirchoff’s laws for circuits with current. Magnetic fields-its characteristics, Biot-Savart’s law, Ampere’s law, Cyclotron, Current loop as a magnetic dipole and its magnetic dipole moment, Magnetic dipole – moment, field intensity, torque on it, Earth’s magnetic field, magnetic elements, Para-, dia- and ferromagnetic substances.
Electromagnetic Induction and Alternating Currents Electromagnetic induction; Faraday’s law, Lenz’s Law, Eddy currents. Self and Mutual Inductance. Alternating current – its characteristics, LCR circuits-series and parallel-Resonance and power. Transformers.
Electromagnetic waves: Electromagnetic waves, their characteristics and their classifications, Sources of electromagnetic waves and their spectrum.
Optics: Physical characterization of light. Reflection, refraction, total internal reflection, absorption, emission, interference, diffraction, dispersion, polarization, scattering. Optical properties of lenses-magnification, power of a lens. Optical instruments-eye, simple magnifier, Microscope-types. Laser-population inversion, optical pumping. Different types of lasers.
Dual Nature of Matter and Radiation: Photoelectric effect, Einstein’s photoelectric equation, Matter waves – wave nature of particles, de Broglie relation. Davisson-Germer experiment.
Atomic structure and Radio activity: J. J. Thomson model, Rutherford’s model, Bohr model. Quantum numbers, selection rules, nuclear model and forces, Liquid drop model, shell model. Radioactivity – radioactive decay law, Mass-energy relation, mass defect, binding energy, nuclear fission and fusion, Radioactive radiations and their classifications, applications of radioactivity.
Semiconductor physics and digital electronics: Conductor, semiconductor, insulator, intrinsic and extrinsic semiconductor, p-n diode, zener, transistor-types, common emitter and common base circuits. Digital electronics-binary, BCD number system, basic logic gates, their combinations-De Morgan’s theorem.
Communication Systems: Elements of a communication system, bandwidth of signals, Propagation of electromagnetic waves. Modulation. Production and detection of an amplitude-modulated wave.
Matrix: Types of matrices, Operations on matrices and its properties, Transpose of a matrix, Symmetric & Skew symmetric matrices, Determinants & its properties, Orthogonal matrix, Adjoint& inverse of a matrix, Consistency of a system of linear equations, solution of a system of linear equations.
Trigonometry: Angles and its measurement in Degrees and Radians. Relation between degree measure and radian measure, Trigonometric functions, Cosine of the difference of two angle, Addition and Subtraction formulae, General reduction formulae, sum & product formulae, Trigonometric equations.
Differentiation: Derivatives, Slopes and rate of change, Product and Quotient rule, Derivative of rational powers of x, Implicit differentiation, Indeterminate forms. Application of derivatives
Integration: Indefinite integral, Integration by substitution, Integration of different forms of functions, Integration through partial fractions, Integration by parts.
Differential Equations: Definition, Order and Degree of Differential equations, Linear equations, Bernoulli’s equation, Exact Equations, Homogenous Equations, Solution of differential equations.
Complex Numbers: Algebra of Complex numbers, Operations on complex numbers and its properties, Conjugate of a complex number and its properties, Modulus of a complex number and its properties. Powers and Roots of complex numbers.
Quadratic Equations: Quadratic Polynomial and Quadratic Equation. Solution of Quadratic Equation, Nature of the roots of a quadratic equation, Symmetric Functions of the roots. Formation of Equation whose roots are given.
Permutations & Combinations: Fundamental principle of counting, The Factorial, Permutations & combinations. Permutations with repetitions allowed, Circular permutations.
Sequence and Series: Sequence-definition, arithmetic Progression, nth term of A.P, sum of n terms of an A.P, Geometric Progression, nth term of G.P, sum of n terms of a G.P, Infinite Series, Sum to infinity.
Vectors: Scalar and Vector Quantities, Types of vectors. Addition and subtraction of vectors, Multiplication of a vector by a scalar, Position vector of a point, Scalar (Dot) product of vectors, Vector (Cross) product of vectors. Scalar Triple product, Vector triple product.
Statistics: Diagrammatic and Graphic representation of data, Mean, Median, Mode, Standard Deviation. Probability, Theorems on probability, Conditional Probability, Independent events, Baye’s Theorem, Random variables. Probability distribution of discrete random variable, Binomial Distribution.