<p>Neurological and psychiatric disorders occur in about 6 percent of the global population indicating a significant amount of people suffering from neurological disorder on a varying range in day to day life. On an extensive view, there is a critical requirement for the development of an alternative biomarker for these conditions. The thwart found in developing a biomarker is the difficulty in identifying a serum biomarker as these are mostly limited to the central nervous system (CNS). Serotonin being a neurotransmitter synthesized in the raphe nuclei of the brain could serve as an alternative biomarker. Here, the limitation is that it's quickly metabolized by the mitochondrial enzyme MAO to 5-hydroxy indole acetic acid (5HIAA). This subsequent metabolite can be used for the analysis of serotonin levels in brain by analysing its concentration in the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF). Many theories suggest that the variations in serotonin level could lead to the development of many neurological and psychiatric disorders like Alzheimer's disease (AD), schizophrenia, depression and so on. A decreased level is noticed in these patients but this could either be due to decreased production or increased reuptake of serotonin from the neuronal synapses. For instance, we know that a patient with depression shows a significant reduction in the levels of 5HIAA, due to the location of the raphe nuclei within regions of memory and cognition. Similarly, it does shows variation in AD and mild cognitive disorder. Evolving of 5HIAA as a biomarker, could be more delicate and enhanced strategy for monitoring these disorders. © 2019 The Author (s).</p>
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H. Jayamohanan, Kumar, M. K. M., and Dr. Aneesh T. P., “5-HIAA as a potential biological marker for neurological and psychiatric disorders”, Advanced Pharmaceutical Bulletin, vol. 9, pp. 374-381, 2019.