After administration ethanol and its metabolites go through kidneys and are excreted into urine, and its content in the urine is higher than that of the blood and the liver. Chronic ethanol administration decreases the renal tubular reabsorption and reduces renal function. Multiple functional abnormalities of renal tubules may be associated with ethanol-induced changes in membrane composition and lipid peroxidation. The vulnerability of the kidney to oxidative damage has been partly attributed to its high content of long-chain polyunsaturated fatty acids. Renal ultra structural abnormalities due to ethanol exposure may be important in the genesis of functional disturbances. Increased oxidative stress and endothelial dysfunction with their complex interrelationships are relevant aspects of atherogenesis in chronic renal failure. Antioxidants, particularly polyphenols are expected to decrease the vulnerability of the kidney to oxidative challenges.
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D. M. Vasudevan and Das, S. K., “Alcohol induced effects on kidney”, Indian Journal of Clinical Biochemistry, vol. 23, pp. 4-9, 2008.