Disruption of the finely tuned osteoblast–osteoclast balance is the underlying basis of several inflammatory bone diseases, such as osteomyelitis, osteoporosis, and septic arthritis. Prolonged and unrestrained exposure to inflammatory environment results in reduction of bone mineral density by downregulating osteoblast differentiation. Earlier studies from our laboratory have identified that Anacardic acid (AA), a constituent of Cashew nut shell liquid that is used widely in traditional medicine, has potential inhibitory effect on gelatinases (MMP2 and MMP9) which are over-expressed in numerous inflammatory conditions (Omanakuttan et al. in Mol Pharmacol, 2012 and Nambiar et al. in Exp Cell Res, 2016). The study demonstrated for the first time that AA promotes osteoblast differentiation in lipopolysaccharide-treated osteosarcoma cells (MG63) by upregulating specific markers, like osteocalcin, receptor activator of NF-κB ligand, and alkaline phosphatase. Furthermore, expression of the negative regulators, such as nuclear factor-κB, matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs), namely MMP13, and MMP1, along with several inflammatory markers, such as Interleukin-1β and Nod-like receptor protein 3 were downregulated by AA. Taken together, AA expounds as a novel template for development of potential pharmacological therapeutics for inflammatory bone diseases
Dr. Bipin G. Nair, M, V., and J, N., “Anacardic acid-mediated regulation of osteoblast differentiation involves mitigation of inflammasome activation pathways”, Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry, vol. 476(2):1-11, 2021.