Alveolar bone loss and bone defects are the commonly encountered periodontal problems. Large defects do not heal spontaneously and thus require surgical interventions with bone substitutes. Bone grafts have the disadvantages of eliciting an immunologic response with subsequent graft rejection. The success rate of Guided Tissue Regeneration (GTR) is variable because of high susceptibility to infection. Thus emerged the important role of synthetic biomaterials and hence for this purpose we developed a nanocomposite scaffold, using α- and β-chitin hydrogel with bioactive glass ceramic nanoparticles (nBGC) and silver nanoparticles (nAg) by lyophilization technique (α- and β-chitin hydrogel/nBGC/nAg nanocomposite scaffold). The prepared nanoparticles and nanocomposite scaffolds were characterized. In addition, the porosity, swelling, mechanical properties, antibacterial activity, in vitro degradation and biomineralization, cell viability, cell attachment and cell proliferation ability of the prepared composite scaffolds were also evaluated. The results showed that α- and β-chitin/nBGC/nAg composite scaffolds were porous and have the capacity to absorb fluids and swell. The composite scaffolds also showed enhanced antibacterial activity, bioactivity and controlled degradation in comparison to the control scaffolds. Cell viability studies proved the non-toxic nature of the nanocomposite scaffolds. Cell attachment and cell proliferation studies revealed the attachment and spreading nature of cells. All these studies revealed that, these antibacterial nanocomposite scaffolds could be a promising approach for the management of periodontal defects. Copyright © 2013 American Scientific Publishers All rights reserved.
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S. Srinivasan, Kumar, P. T. Sudheesh, Nair, S. V., Chennazhi, K. P., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Antibacterial and bioactive α- And β-chitin hydrogel/ nanobioactive glass ceramic/nano silver composite scaffolds for periodontal regeneration”, Journal of Biomedical Nanotechnology, vol. 9, pp. 1803-1816, 2013.