Kesterite Cu2ZnSn(S,Se)4 (CZTSSe) is obtained using a facile precursor-solution method followed by selenization. Power-conversion efficiency of 6.0 % is achieved and further improved to 8.2 % after doping the absorber with 0.5 mol % Sb. XRD and Raman spectroscopy show similar characteristics for the undoped and doped CZTSSe. Increasing the Sb concentration increases the grain size and lowers the series resistance. However, further Sb doping beyond 0.5 mol % degrades device performance due to lower open-circuit voltage (and therefore lower fill factor). The effect of Sb doping and the doping concentration are investigated by power-dependent and temperature-dependent photoluminescence studies, revealing that trap density is significant reduced with 0.5 mol % Sb doping. Additional doping beyond 0.5 mol % creates more defects that quench the photoexcited carriers and decrease the open-circuit voltage.
K. Fai Tai, Fu, D., Chiam, S. Yang, Huan, C. Hon Alfred, Batabyal Sudip Kumar, and Wong, L. Helena, “Antimony Doping in Solution‐processed Cu2ZnSn (S, Se) 4 Solar Cells”, ChemSusChem, vol. 8, pp. 3504–3511, 2015.