Pharmacogenomics is the study of how genetic factors relate to inter-individual variability of drug response. With the initiation of Human Genome Project on 1991, it will have an important effect on the development and utilization of drug which is based on the person's genotype that ensure the rational use of medicine. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic characters of the drug may influenced by various genetic factors, so the effect of a drug may vary from person to person. Genetic polymorphism of single gene affect a numerous drug metabolizing enzymes, thus leads to altered drug metabolism and produce adverse effects or inefficiency. It has relevance in case of population carries genetic variation-polymorphism that may alter the drug response such as in the case of warfarin. A reduction in warfarin metabolism due to genetic polymorphism in CYP2C9 system may explain the increased warfarin response and bleeding episodes in some patients. The impact of genetic polymorphism has bee also important in case of drugs which are metabolized through CYP2D6 subfamily, such as codeine, nortriptyline, metoprolol, simvastatin, abacavir, carbamazepine, selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors and tamoxifen. This review is mainly focused on the importance of pharmacogenomic testing for certain drugs.
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Roshni P. R., Thomas, N. R., Remya Reghu, and Meenu Vijayan, “Application of pharmacogenomics in health care”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Sciences Review and Research, vol. 26, pp. 131-133, 2014.