In the field of agriculture, use of proper method of irrigation is important and it is well known that irrigation by drip is very economical and efficient. In the conventional drip irrigation system, the farmer has to keep watch on irrigation timetable, which is different for different crops. This project makes the irrigation automated. With the use of low cost soil moisture sensors and the simple circuitry makes this project a low cost product, which can be bought even by a poor farmer. This project is best suited for places where water is scares and has to be used in limited quantity. Also, third world countries can afford this simple and low cost solution for irrigation and obtain good yield on Crops. In this work undertaken, a given area of land is divided into specific areas virtually by C.A.D software and soil moisture sensors are deployed at specific points in every sector of the division. Underground water-piping is laid covering all the sectors from all sides. The sensors sense the moisture levels continuously and water the area running low on moisture instead of the entire land. Sensors transmit the moisture content and display on to the L.C.D. The method developed shows the effectiveness of the scheme employed. Provision for mixing fertilizers and other essential chemicals is also allowed through the watering route ensuring less labour work force. Armel ATMEGA328 controller supported with ARDUINO is used in this project. A 16×2 LCD is connected to the microcontroller, which displays the sector-wise moisture level. We have taken two sector divisions into consideration. Each sector division will have few moisture sensors and each sensor will transmit a value. Average value of all sensors in a field is taken. Solenoid valves are used for controlling the water flow to the prototype field. The soil moisture levels are transmitted at regular time interval to the PC through the USB port connected to ARDUINO developer board for data logging and analysis. Three relays are connected to the microcontroller for controlling two solenoid valves and the motor supplying water to different parts of the field.
Dr. T. K. Ramesh, V., M., V., P. Kumar, and K., T., “Automated irrigation system with partition facility for effective irrigation of small scale farms”, Ecology, Environment and Conservation Paper, vol. 21, no. 1, pp. 369-375, 2015.