Magnetite/gold (Fe 3O 4/Au) hybrid nanoparticles were synthesized from a single iron precursor (ferric chloride) through a green chemistry route using grape seed proanthocyanidin as the reducing agent. Structural and physicochemical characterization proved the nanohybrid to be crystalline, with spherical morphology and size ∼35 nm. Magnetic resonance imaging and magnetization studies revealed that the Fe 3O 4 component of the hybrid provided superparamagnetism, with dark T 2 contrast and high relaxivity (124.2 ± 3.02 mM -1 s -1). Phantom computed tomographic imaging demonstrated good X-ray contrast, which can be attributed to the presence of the nanogold component in the hybrid. Considering the potential application of this bimodal nanoconstruct for stem cell tracking and imaging, we have conducted compatibility studies on human Mesenchymal Stem Cells (hMSCs), wherein cell viability, apoptosis, and intracellular reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation due to the particle-cell interaction were asessed. It was noted that the material showed good biocompatibility even for high concentrations of 500 μg/mL and up to 48 h incubation, with no apoptotic signals or ROS generation. Cellular uptake of the nanomaterial was visualized using confocal microscopy and prussian blue staining. The presence of the nanohybrids were clearly visualized in the intracytoplasmic region of the cell, which is desirable for efficient imaging of stem cells in addition to the cytocompatible nature of the hybrids. Our work is a good demonstrative example of the use of green aqueous chemistry through the employment of phytochemicals for the room temperature synthesis of complex hybrid nanomaterials with multimodal functionalities. © 2011 American Chemical Society.
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S. Narayanan, Sathy, B. N., Dr. Ullas Mony, Koyakutty, M., Nair, S. V., and Menon, D., “Biocompatible magnetite/gold nanohybrid contrast agents via green chemistry for MRI and CT bioimaging”, ACS Applied Materials and Interfaces, vol. 4, pp. 251-260, 2012.