Biomarkers of alcoholism: An updated review
Publication Type:Journal Article
Source:Scandinavian Journal of Clinical and Laboratory Investigation, Volume 68, Number 2, p.81-92 (2008)
Keywords:5 hydroxyindoleacetic acid, 5 hydroxytryptophol, 8 hydroxydeoxyguanosine, acetaldehyde, albumin, alcohol, alcohol blood level, alcohol consumption, Alcoholism, Animals, aspartate aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase blood level, beta n acetylhexosaminidase, biological marker, Biological Markers, blood testis barrier, carbohydrate deficient transferrin, clusterin, collagen type 4, diagnostic accuracy, diagnostic value, disease marker, enzyme activity, enzyme assay, gamma glutamyltransferase, globulin, high density lipoprotein cholesterol, human, Humans, hyaluronic acid, laboratory test, mean corpuscular volume, priority journal, review, sensitivity and specificity, serotonin, sialic acid, tumor necrosis factor alpha, urinalysis
Alcoholic beverages, and the problems they engender, have been familiar in human societies since the beginning of recorded history. Among a variety of blood tests used to aid the diagnosis of alcohol consumption and related disorders, laboratory tests are particularly useful in settings where cooperativeness is suspected or when a history is not available. Biochemical and haematological tests, such as gamma-glutamyltransferase activity, aspartate aminotransferase activity and erythrocyte mean corpuscular volume, are established markers of alcohol intake. Carbohydrate-deficient transferrin is the only test approved by the FDA for the identification of heavy alcohol use. Total serum sialic acid and sialic acid index of Apolipoprotein J have the potential to be included in a combination of measurements providing an accurate, more exact, assessment of alcohol consumption in a variety of clinical and research settings. Several other markers with considerable potential for measuring recent alcohol intake include beta-hexosaminidase, acetaldehyde adducts and the urinary ratio of serotonin metabolites, 5-hydroxytryptophol and 5-hydroxyindoleacetic acid. These markers provide hope for more sensitive and specific aids to diagnosis and improved monitoring of alcohol intake. © 2008 Informa UK Ltd (Informa Healthcare, Taylor & Francis AS).
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