This chapter briefly reviews the opportunities and challenges involved in the use of graphene as a biomedical material. The opportunities are in drug delivery, biosensors, and other radiation therapies; but the challenges clearly will be the issues of systemic toxicity and long-term ill effects, such as carcinogenesis, and the problem of defining the physicochemical and structural characteristics of graphene that will minimize the toxicity and maximize whatever therapeutic advantages there are to be derived from this material
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M. Koyakutty, Sasidharan, A., and Nair, S., Biomedical Applications of Graphene: Opportunities and Challenges. Wiley-VCH, 2012, pp. 373-408.