Extravascular vesicles are agents that are released by various cell types which elicit major role in cell to cell communication. Exosomes are one of the most scuritized extra vascular vesicles to provide delivery of cargo. Exosomes are small vesicles (40 to 100 nm) that are released by different cell types in the body. The heterogeneous protein-lipid composition and physicochemical features of these endogenous vesicles had led to its transformation into a Nano drug delivery device with various therapeutic and diagnostic applications. Structurally exosomes are composed of proteins, lipids, nucleic acids and other cellular components. Exosomes are produced by two ways that follows Endosomal Sorting Complex Required for Transport (ESCRT) dependant and independent mechanism. Release of recipient cells, cell-cell communication and immune response are some of the functions of exosomes. Various techniques are employed to isolate the vesicular system that includes ultracentrifugation, Size-exclusion Chromatography, Pull-down assay and Tangential-flow filtration. It has several therapeutic and diagnostic applications in cancer therapy, nucleic acid delivery, and in cardiovascular and neurodegenerative diseases.
Lakshmi V. S., Thayyilakandy, S., Sreekumar, R., Santhosh, S., and Sreeja C. Nair, “Cargo Exosomes a Key Platform in Emerging Nanoscale Drug Delivery System”, International Journal of Pharmaceutical Research, vol. 12, 2020.