Bacterial cell surface adhesins play a major role in facilitating host colonization and subsequent establishment of infection. The surface of Mycobacterium tuberculosis, owing to the complex architecture of its cell envelope, expresses numerous adhesins with varied chemical nature, including proteins, lipids, lipoproteins, glycoproteins and glycopolymers. Studies on mycobacterial adhesins show that they bind with multifarious host receptors and extracellular matrix (ECM) components. In this review we have highlighted the adhesins that are abundantly present on the mycobacterial surface and their interactions with host receptors. M. tuberculosis interacts with various host cell surface receptors such as toll like receptors, C-type lectin receptors, scavenger receptors, and Fc and complement receptors. Apart from these, ECM components like fibronectin, collagen, elastin, laminin, fibrillin and vitronectin also provide binding sites for surface adhesins of the tubercle bacilli. M. tuberculosis adhesins include proteins with and without signal peptide sequence and transmembrane proteins. Other surface adhesin macromolecules of M. tuberculosis comprises of lipids, glycolipids and glycopolymers. The interaction between the mycobacterial adhesins and their host receptors result in adhesion of the microbe to the host cells, induction of immune response and aid in the pathogenesis of the disease. A thorough understanding of the different M. tuberculosis surface adhesins and host receptors will provide a better picture of interaction between them at molecular level. The information gained on adhesins and host receptors will prove beneficial in developing novel therapeutic strategies such as the use of anti-adhesin molecules to hinder the adhesion of bacteria to the host cells, thereby preventing establishment of infection. The surface molecules discussed in this review will also benefit in identification of new drug targets, diagnostic markers or vaccine candidates against the deadly pathogen.
V. Vinod, Vijayrajratnam, S., Vasudevan, A. Kumar, and Dr. Raja Biswas, “The Cell Surface Adhesins of Mycobacterium Tuberculosis”, Microbiological Research, vol. 232, p. 126392, 2020.