Hemostatic agents can facilitate a rapid and effective hemostasis, thereby controlling the loss of blood during massive hemorrhage. Numerous biological- and nonbiological-based hemostatic agents are widely used in clinics for control of bleeding. The use of biologically active agents to bring about hemostasis has a few disadvantages, such as their origin, handling procedure, and potential for disease transmission. Nonbiological agents, such as chitin and chitosan, gained popularity as hemostatic agents as they do not depend on the native coagulation cascade to control bleeding. Several FDA-approved commercially available hemostatic agents are derived from chitin and chitosan. Chitosan bandage is even used in military as it could bring about rapid hemostasis during massive hemorrhage. This article presents various hemostatic agents used for bleeding control. We particularly focus on the chemical structure and properties of chitin and chitosan that give them hemostatic properties. Advantages of using chitin and chitosan as hemostatic agents are also discussed.
N. Sundaram M., Mony, U., and Dr. Jayakumar Rangasamy, “Chitin and Chitosan as Hemostatic Agents”, in Encyclopedia of Polymer Science and Technology, American Cancer Society, 2016, pp. 1-12.