Earlier studies from our laboratory have demonstrated that clove bud oil (CBO) attenuates expression of certain virulence factors of Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1. Here, we probe more deeply into the effect of CBO on four pseudomonal proteases - elastase A, elastase B, protease IV and alkaline protease - each known to play key roles in disease pathogenesis. CBO inhibited the activity of these proteases present in the bacterial culture supernatant. Zymography studies indicated that these proteases can activate host matrix metalloproteases (MMPs) to establish infection, through conversion of pro-MMP-2 to active MMP-2. PAO1 is a predominant pathogen in burn wound infections and we show the modulatory effect of CBO on MMPs in an in vitro model of burn injury. Furthermore, CBO induced dose-dependent neutrophil extracellular trap formation in human neutrophils. CBO also increased the survival of C. elegans infected with PAO1, establishing an anti-infective role in a whole animal model of pathogenesis. LC-MS/MS analysis indicated that CBO treatment elicited a significant reduction of signalling molecules (Acyl-Homoserine-Lactone) involved in quorum sensing regulation. Our observations demonstrate that CBO attenuates key virulence mechanisms of this important human pathogen, while concomitantly enhancing host innate immunomodulatory functions, with potential implications for topical therapy against antibiotic-resistant infections.
Jayalekshmi H., Omanakuttan, A., Menon, N. D., Muralidharan Vanuopadath, Nair, S. Sadasivan, Corriden, R., Nair, B. G., Nizet, V., and Kumar, G. B., “Clove Bud Oil Modulates Pathogenicity Phenotypes of the Opportunistic Human Pathogen Pseudomonas aeruginosa.”, Sci Rep, vol. 8, no. 1, p. 3437, 2018.