Effective therapeutic regimens for the treatment of tuberculosis (TB) are limited. They are comprised of multiple drugs that inhibit the essential cellular pathways in Mycobacterium tuberculosis (Mtb). The present study investigates an approach which enables a combination of Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid (AMC) and a repurposed drug for its synergistic effect towards TB treatment. We identified Diosmin (DIO), by targeting the active site residues of L,D-transpeptidase (Ldt) enzymes involved in Mtb cell wall biosynthesis by using a structure-based drug design method. DIO is rapidly converted into aglycone form Diosmetin (DMT) after oral administration. Binding of DIO or DMT towards Ldt enzymes was studied using molecular docking and bioassay techniques. Combination of DIO (or DMT) and AMC exhibited higher mycobactericidal activity against Mycobacterium marinum as compared to individual drugs. Scanning electron microscopy study of M. marinum treated with AMC-DIO and AMC-DMT showed marked cellular leakage. M. marinum infected Drosophila melanogaster fly model showed an increased fly survival of ~60% upon treatment with a combination of AMC and DIO (or DMT). Finally, the enhanced in vitro antimicrobial activity of AMC-DIO was validated against Mtb H37Ra and a MDR clinical isolate. Our results demonstrate the potential for AMC and DIO (or DMT) as a synergistic combination for the treatment of TB.
A. Choorakott Pushkaran, Vinod, V., Muralidharan Vanuopadath, Nair, S. Sadasivan, Nair, S. V., Vasudevan, A. Kumar, Biswas, R., and Mohan, C. Gopi, “Combination of Repurposed Drug Diosmin with Amoxicillin-Clavulanic acid Causes Synergistic Inhibition of Mycobacterial Growth”, Scientific reports, vol. 9, no. 1, p. 6800, 2019.