Path loss is caused by the propagation characteristics and the obstacles between transmitter and receiver due to which signal strength is reduced in wireless communication. Analysis based on path loss models provides good initial estimate of the signal characteristics. Propagation models are used to determine the path attenuation based on parameters such as carrier frequency, transmitter-receiver distance, basestation antenna height, receiver antenna height and terrain profile (e.g. rural, suburban and urban). Propagation models are used for path loss estimation which is important for planning the deployment of base-stations and area of coverage. In this paper, different Propagation models such as Okumura's Model, Hata Model, Longley rice Model, Free Space Propagation Model, COST 231 Extension to Hata Model, COST 231 Walfisch Ikegami Model, Stanford University Interim (SUI) Model and Hata-Okumura Model are surveyed. A comparative analysis of these models is provided which can serve as a valuable guide for selecting the appropriate model for a specific application scenario.
V. S. Anusha, Nithya, G. K., and Sethuraman Rao, “A comprehensive survey of electromagnetic propagation models”, in 2017 International Conference on Communication and Signal Processing (ICCSP), Chennai, India, 2018.