Publication Type:

Journal Article


Indian Journal of Gastroenterology, Volume 31, Number 1, p.20-23 (2012)



acute graft rejection, adult, article, controlled study, corticosteroid, diabetes mellitus, drug blood level, drug cost, drug dose increase, drug dose reduction, drug efficacy, generic drug, Health Care Costs, human, Humans, hyperkalemia, Immunosuppression, Immunosuppressive Agents, immunosuppressive treatment, India, kidney disease, Liver Diseases, liver transplantation, living donor, Living Donors, low drug dose, major clinical study, methylprednisolone, mycept, Mycophenolic Acid, mycophenolic acid 2 morpholinoethyl ester, nephrotoxicity, neurotoxicity, omnacortil, pangraf, prednisolone, rapamycin, Retrospective Studies, retrospective study, single drug dose, tacrolimus, treatment outcome, tremor, unclassified drug


Background: Cost of post liver transplant immunosuppression is a major financial burden to patients in developing countries. In India, generic varieties of various immunosuppressants are often used without any definite evidence to their efficacy. This study was aimed at studying the dosage, side effect profile and cost of post-liver transplant immunosuppression using generic products in Indian population following living donor liver transplantation (LDLT). Methods: Data on dose, cost, and toxicity of immunosuppression were retrieved retrospectively from case records of 59 patients who had undergone LDLT at our center. Results: Adequate immunosuppression was obtained by tacrolimus (Pangraf ®-Panacea) of 0. 04 to 0. 05 mg/Kg, and mycophenolate (Mycept ®-Panacea) of 500 to 1,000 mg; the acute rejection rate was 15% during the first month. Serum tacrolimus levels were 5. 4 to 7. 3 ng/mL. The cost of immunosuppression varied from Rs. 28,705 in the first month to Rs. 8,820 per month at the end of first year, amounting to an average monthly cost of Rs. 17,250. Approximately 23% and 51% of cost was for mycophenolate and for drug level measurement of tacrolimus, respectively. Conclusion: Average cost of immunosuppression after LDLT in India is much lower than that reported elsewhere in the world, since lower drug doses are needed and cheaper generic drugs are available. This can be reduced further by decreasing the frequency of tacrolimus drug level measurement. © 2011 Indian Society of Gastroenterology.


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Cite this Research Publication

S. Sudhindran, Aboobacker, S., Menon, R. N., Unnikrishnan, G., Sudheer, O. V., and Dhar, P., “Cost and efficacy of immunosuppression using generic products following living donor liver transplantation in India”, Indian Journal of Gastroenterology, vol. 31, pp. 20-23, 2012.