Long-term variability of heat content (HC) in the upper 1,000m of the Arctic Ocean is investigated using surface and subsurface temperature and current data during 1958–2005 compiled by Simple Ocean Data Assimilation. Annual cycle of the Arctic Ocean HC is controlled primarily by the negative and positive excursions in net upper ocean heat flux, while the inter-annual variability is mainly associated with meridional thermal advection from the North Atlantic Ocean. Variability in HC is experienced as a basin-wide cooling/warming in association with the Arctic Oscillation on a decadal time scale. In the first three dominant modes of Empirical Orthogonal Function, the maximum amplitude of HC variability occurs in the Greenland–Norwegian Sea and Eurasian Basin. In general, HC showed increasing trend during 1958–2005 indicating continuous warming with regional variations in magnitude. KeywordsArctic Ocean–Heat content–Ocean warming–Heat budget–EOF
Dr. Madhusoodanan M.S. and Thompson, B., “Decadal variability of the Arctic Ocean thermal structure”, Ocean Dynamics, vol. 61, no. 7, pp. 873–880, 2011.