Optimization of irrigation water is an important issue in agricultural production for maximizing the return from the limited water availability. The current study proposes a simulation–optimization framework for developing optimal irrigation schedules for rice crop (Oryza sativa) under water deficit conditions. The framework utilizes a rice crop growth simulation model to identify the critical periods of growth that are highly sensitive to the reduction in final crop yield, and a genetic algorithm based optimizer develops the optimal water allocations during the crop growing period. The model ORYZA2000, which is employed as the crop growth simulation model, is calibrated and validated using field experimental data prior to incorporating in the proposed framework. The proposed framework was applied to a real world case study of a command area in southern India, and it was found that significant improvement in total yield can be achieved by the model compared to other water saving irrigation methods. The results of the study were highly encouraging and suggest that by employing a calibrated crop growth model combined with an optimization algorithm can lead to achieve maximum water use efficiency.
Soundharajan B. and Sudheer, K. P., “Deficit irrigation management for rice using crop growth simulation model in an optimization framework”, Paddy and Water Environment, vol. 7, pp. 135–149, 2009.