Water collected from a rain fed Gauri Shankar Lake, Bhavnagar, Gujarat, India was used for this study. It was clarified by giving treatment with alum and poly aluminum chloride (PAC) to remove suspended impurities present in it. Waters having turbidity value of 100–750 NTU (Nephelometric Turbidity Units) were treated with PAC and alum. The dosage of PAC required for the treatment was 60% less as compared with alum. The clarified water was passed through columns loaded with strong acid and strong base ion-exchange resins to obtain deionized water. The experiments were carried out for 100 cycles of exhaustion and regeneration. The effect of the coagulation process conditions on ion-exchange capacity, and the physical attrition of the ion-exchange resins were studied intensively. Also, the performance of ion-exchange resins was compared with virgin ground waters from the institute's well. The resins employed in the study were subjected to EDX (Energy Dispersive X-Ray Spectroscopy) analysis to find out the presence of coagulating ions adsorbed on the resins. The resins were also subjected to SEM (Scanning Electron Microscope) analysis to find changes on their surface due to adhering materials if any.
H. B. Halvadiya, Dr. Gangadharan D., Popat, K. Mangaldas, and Anand, P. Singh, “Deionization of coagulated, clarified, turbid Gauri Shankar Lake waters by using ion-exchange technology”, Separation Science and Technology, vol. 43, pp. 2183–2195, 2008.