Publication Type:

Journal Article


Landslides, Volume 9, Number 4, p.457-474 (2012)



accelerometer, borehole, Data acquisition, Deep-earth probes (DEPs), detection method, Disaster monitoring, Emilia, Field instrumentation, GNSS, hazard assessment, Himalayas, India, landslide, Landslides, monitoring system, mortality, mountain region, piezometer, probe, Probes, sensor, Sensors, Western Ghats, Western Ghats of India, wind stress, Wireless sensor network (WSNs), Wireless sensor networks


In this paper, we present a state-of-the-art wireless sensor network (WSN) of deep-earth probes (DEPs) that has been deployed to monitor an active landslide in the Western Ghats mountain range of South India. While India has one of the highest incidences of landslides and landslide-induced fatalities-primarily in the Himalayas of North India and in the Western Ghats of Central and South India-our study is perhaps the first comprehensive attempt to instrumentally detect landslides in the Western Ghats. Wireless networks have enabled us, since June 2009, to continuously monitor the deployment site in real time and from anywhere around the globe. There have been a few earlier landslide monitoring WSNs using accelerometers in Emilia Romagna Apennines, Italy; global navigation satellite system (GNSS) sensors to monitor the Hornbergl landslide, Austria; and vibrating wire stress sensors to monitor a slope in China. We improved upon these WSN systems by incorporating a variety of sensors-piezometers, dielectric moisture sensors, strain gauges, tiltmeters, a geophone, and a weather station-and installing some of these sensors as deep as 20 m below the ground surface. We present the salient aspects of the field deployment of DEPs: the selection of sensors and their incorporation in DEPs, the methodology we used in embedding these DEPs into the soil, and a few of the key aspects of the wireless sensor network. We also present a description of the deployment site and some of the results of geotechnical investigations carried out on borehole corings. Finally, we present the more interesting field data collected from the monitoring system during a rainy season in July and August 2009. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.


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Cite this Research Publication

M. V. Ramesh and Vasudevan, N., “The deployment of deep-earth sensor probes for landslide detection”, Landslides, vol. 9, pp. 457-474, 2012.