Transdermal drug delivery system of diltiazem hydrochloride was developed to obtain a prolonged controlled drug delivery. Both the matrix diffusion controlled (MDC) and membrane permeation controlled (MPC) systems were developed. The matrix diffusion controlled systems used various combinations of hydrophilic and lipophillic polymers, whereas membrane permeation controlled systems were developed using the natural polymer chitosan. The MDC systems were prepared using the cast film method and the MPC systems by an adhesive sealing technique. Both the systems were characterized for in vitro and in vivo performance. The MDC systems were characterized for physicochemical properties such as tensile strength, moisture content, and water vapor transmission. The in vitro release studies showed that the release from the matrix diffusion controlled transdermal drug delivery systems follows a nonfickian pattern and that from the membrane permeation controlled transdermal drug delivery systems follow zero-order kinetics. The release from the matrix systems increased on increasing the hydrophilic polymer concentration, but the release from the membrane systems decrease on cross-linking of the rate controlling membrane and also on addition of citric acid to the chitosan drug reservoir gel. The in vivo studies of the selected systems showed that both systems are capable of achieving the effective plasma concentration for a prolonged period of time. The MPC system achieved effective plasma concentration a little more slowly than the MDC system, but it exhibited a more steady state plasma level for 24 hr.
S. K. Jain, Chourasia, M., Dr. Sabitha M., Jain, R., Jain, A. K., Ashawat, M., and Jha, A. K., “Development and Characterization of Transdermal Drug Delivery Systems for Diltiazem Hydrochloride”, Drug delivery, vol. 10, pp. 169-77, 2003.