Multimodal molecular imaging provides both anatomical and molecular information, aiding early stage detection and better treatment planning of diseased conditions. Here, we report development and nanotoxicity evaluation of a novel hydroxyapatite nanoparticle (nHAp) based multimodal contrast agent for combined near-infrared (NIR), MR and X-ray imaging. Under optimised wet-chemical conditions, we achieved simultaneous doping of nHAp (size ∼50 nm) with indocyanine green and Gd3+ contributing to NIR contrast (∼750–850 nm), paramagnetic behaviour and X-ray absorption suitable for NIR, MR and X-ray contrast imaging, respectively. Haematocompatibility studies using stem cell viability, haemolysis, platelet activation, platelet aggregation and coagulation time analysis indicated excellent compatibility of doped nHAp (D-nHAp). Further, the immunogenic function studies using human lymphocytes (in vitro) showed that D-nHAp caused no adverse effects. Collectively, our studies suggest that D-nHAp with excellent biocompatibility and multifunctional properties is a promising nanocontrast agent for combined NIR, MR and X-ray imaging applications
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Anusha Ashokan, Chandran, P., Sadanandan, A. R., Koduri, C. K., Retnakumari, A. P., Menon, D., Shantikumar V Nair, and Dr. Manzoor K., “Development and Haematotoxicological Evaluation of Doped Hydroxyapatite based Multimodal Nanocontrast Agent for Near-infrared, Magnetic Resonance and X-ray Contrast Imaging”, Nanotoxicology, vol. 6, pp. 652-666, 2012.