We discuss recent advances in Gd-based T1-weighted MR contrast agents for the mapping of cellular pH. The pH plays a critical role in various biological processes. During the past two decades, several MR contrast agents of strategic importance for pH-mapping have been developed. Some of these agents shed light on the pH fluctuation in the tumor microenvironment. A pH-responsive self-assembled contrast agent facilitates the visualization of tumor size as small as 3 mm3. Optimization of various parameters is crucial for the development of pH-responsive contrast agents. In due course, the new contrast agents may provide significant insight into pH fluctuations in the human body.
S. Bhuniya and Hong, K. Soo, “Diagnostic Significance of pH-Responsive Gd3+-Based T1 MR Contrast Agents”, Investigative Magnetic Resonance Imaging, vol. 23, no. 1, pp. 17–25, 2019.