<p>A promising strategy for augmenting bone formation involves the local delivery of multiple osteoinductive and vasculogenic growth factors. However, success depends on sustained growth factor release and its appropriate combination to induce stem cells and osteogenic cells at the bony site. Herein, we have developed a nanocomposite fibrous scaffold loaded with fibroblast growth factor 2 (FGF2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) and bone morphogenetic protein 2 (BMP2) and its ability to promote vascularisation and bone regeneration in critical sized calvarial defect was compared to the scaffold with VEGF + BMP2 and FGF2 + BMP2. Simple loading of growth factors on the scaffold could provide a differential release pattern, both in vitro and in vivo (VEGF release for 1 week where as BMP2 and FGF2 release for 3 weeks). Among all the groups, dual growth factor loaded scaffold (VEGF + BMP2 & FGF2 + BMP2) enhanced vascularisation and new bone formation, but there was no difference between FGF2 and VEGF loaded scaffolds although its release pattern was different. FGF2 mainly promoted stem cell migration, whereas VEGF augmented new blood vessel formation at the defect site. This study suggests that biomimetic nanocomposite scaffold is a promising growth factor delivery vehicle to improve bone regeneration in critical sized bone defects. Statement of Significance: Many studies have shown the effect of growth factors like VEGF-BMP2 or FGF2-BMP2 in enhancing bone formation in critical sized defects, but there are no reports that demonstrate the direct comparison of VEGF-BMP2 and FGF2-BMP2. In this study, we have developed a nanocomposite fibrous scaffold that could differentially release growth factors like VEGF, BMP2 and FGF2 (VEGF release for 1 week where as BMP2 and FGF2 release for 3 weeks), which in turn promoted neovascularisation and new bone formation in critical sized defects. There was no difference in vascularisation and bone formation induced by VEGF + BMP2 or FGF2 + BMP2. The growth factor was loaded in a simple manner, which would ensure ease of use for the end-user, especially for the surgeons treating a patient in an operating room. © 2018 Acta Materialia Inc.</p>
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S. Kuttappan, Mathew, D., Jo, J. - I., Tanaka, R., Menon, D., Ishimoto, T., Nakano, T., Nair, S. V., Nair, M. B., and Tabata, Y., “Dual release of growth factor from nanocomposite fibrous scaffold promotes vascularisation and bone regeneration in rat critical sized calvarial defect”, Acta Biomaterialia, vol. 78, pp. 36-47, 2018.