Energy conservation is a critical issue in battery operated systems. Energy consumption reduction of portable embedded systems is essential for increasing the battery life, enabling better system usefulness. One of the promising techniques of energy consumption reduction is Dynamic Voltage and Frequency (DVFS). In this paper, a Dynamic Frequency Scaling (DFS) method is used to reduce the energy consumed by an Atmel ATmega 16 microcontroller while executing a robotic application. A noticeable amount of energy saving was observed both by simulation and experimental validation when switching frequency was varied from rated frequency to below rated frequencies, without violating any of the temporal requirements.
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Dr. Anju Pillai S. and Dr. Isha T. B., “Dynamic frequency scaling based energy consumption reduction for power-aware embedded systems - a simulation and experimental approach”, International Journal of Electrical Systems, vol. 10, pp. 36-47, 2014.