Publication Type:

Journal Article


Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, Medknow Publications, Volume 7, Number 6, p.S648-S651 (2015)



adult, article, clinical article, clinical attachment loss, controlled study, disease association, disease severity, gingiva disease, human, India, male, mouth hygiene, parameters, periodontal disease, periodontitis, pilot study, pocket depth, priority journal, risk, smoking, smoking cessation, tooth plaque


<p>Aims and Objectives: Smoking is one of the major risk factors for periodontal disease. This study aims at examining the difference in the periodontal status of current smokers, former smokers, and nonsmokers among the adults of Kothamangalam, Kerala. It investigates the association between the level of cigarette consumption and periodontal attachment loss taking into account the effect of age, gender, and oral hygiene. Methodology: The study population consisted of 30 subjects and divided into three groups as current, former, and nonsmokers with periodontal disease. All clinical parameters were recorded. Smoking assessment was done using a self-reported questionnaire, and statistical analysis was carried out. Results: Current smokers had a higher percentage of sites with mean probing depth, and greater mean clinical attachment level than former smokers and nonsmoker. A significant difference (P &lt; 0.05) was found in clinical attachment loss (CAL) between Group I (current smokers) and III (nonsmokers), that shows the increased risk of current smokers for future periodontal destruction. The CAL for current smokers was 5.20 ± 2.440 and for the nonsmokers was 1.50 ± 1.265. A significant difference (P &lt; 0.05) was found in CAL between Group I and III. Summary and Conclusion: The study revealed a marked association between cigarette smoking and the risk of periodontitis. The increased destruction among current smokers showed a dose-dependent relationship with the amount of cigarette consumption. For former smokers, the duration since quitting smoking was associated with a lower risk for severe periodontitis. © 2015 Journal of Pharmacy And Bioallied Sciences | Published by Wolters Kluwer - Medknow.</p>


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Cite this Research Publication

Ma Shereef, Sanara, P. Pb, Karuppanan, Sc, Noorudeen, Ad, and Joseph, Ke, “The effect of cigarette smoking on the severity of periodontal diseases among adults of Kothamangalam Town, Kerala”, Journal of Pharmacy and Bioallied Sciences, vol. 7, pp. S648-S651, 2015.