Publication Type:

Journal Article

Source:

International Journal of Medical Microbiology, Volume 299, Number 1, p.75 - 85 (2009)

URL:

http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S143842210800074X

Keywords:

Sphingomyelinase

Abstract:

<p>Peptidoglycans (PGNs) from bacterial cell walls belong to ‘pathogen-associated molecular patterns’ (PAMP), which modify the course of an infection with bacterial pathogens. Bacterial infections may lead to anaemia, which at least partially could result from accelerated erythrocyte death. The present study explored the effect of \{PGNs\} on eryptosis, a stress-induced suicidal death of erythrocytes, characterized by cell shrinkage and cell membrane scrambling with phosphatidylserine exposure at the erythrocyte surface. Eryptotic cells are phagocytosed and thus rapidly cleared from circulating blood. Eryptosis is triggered by an increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration and by formation of ceramide. Erythrocyte Ca2+ activity was estimated from Fluo3 fluorescence, ceramide formation by fluorescent antibodies, phosphatidylserine exposure from annexin V-binding, and erythrocyte volume from forward scatter in fluorescence activated cell sorting (FACS) analysis. Exposure of erythrocytes to \{PGNs\} increased cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, increased ceramide formation, enhanced the percentage of annexin V-binding erythrocytes, decreased erythrocyte forward scatter, and lowered the intracellular \{ATP\} concentration. The effect of peptidoglycans was significantly blunted in the absence of extracellular Ca2+. The clearance of erythrocytes exposed to \{PGNs\} was significantly enhanced in vivo. In conclusion, peptidoglycans induce eryptosis at least partially through an increase in the cytosolic Ca2+ concentration, an effect presumably contributing to the development of anaemia during bacterial infections.</p>

Cite this Research Publication

M. Föller, Dr. Raja Biswas, Mahmud, H., Akel, A., Shumilina, E., Wieder, T., Goetz, F., and Lang, F., “Effect of peptidoglycans on erythrocyte survival”, International Journal of Medical Microbiology, vol. 299, pp. 75 - 85, 2009.

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