Nanofluids (colloidal suspensions of nano-sized metallic and non-metallic particles in conventional cooling liquids) are well known for their potential to enhance the thermal transport. Excessive attempts have been made to utilize these nanofluids in heat transfer applications and energy conversion systems, etc. Effective viscosity of nanofluids is a pivotal parameter in determining the flow and heat transfer performance of nanofluids. The prime aim of this work is to develop a new model for effective viscosity of nanofluids. The influences of aggregation and interfacial layer formation have been incorporated into the Krieger–Dougherty (K–D) equation to predict the effective viscosity of nanofluids. This is accomplished by characterizing the clusters based on particle size distribution (PSD) analysis. Furthermore, attention has been paid to showcase the effects of cluster volume fraction, particle diameter and surfactants on effective viscosity of nanofluids. The predicted results are in good agreement with a wide variety of experimental data from literature consisting of different combinations of nanoparticles and basefluid. The accuracy and ease of application of the newly proposed model make it more interesting and useful for practical engineers in design and development of heat transfer systems using nanofluids.
R. Deepak Selvakumar and Dhinakaran, S., “Effective Viscosity of Nanofluids — A Modified Krieger–Dougherty Model Based on Particle Size Distribution (PSD) Analysis”, Journal of Molecular Liquids, vol. 225, pp. 20 - 27, 2017.